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  1. Paul O. Romere; Steve Wesley Brown*, Documentation and the Archiving of the Space Shuttle Wind Tunnel Test Data Base - Volume 1: Background and Description, TM-104806-vol1, 1/1/1995, pp. 192, *Lockheed Engineering & Sciences Company Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: Space Shuttles, Wind Tunnel Tests, Aerodynamic Characteristics, Heat Transfer, Dynamic Structural Analysis, Aerothermodynamics

    Abstract: Development of the Space Shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers the evolution of Space Shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.



  2. Paul O. Romere; Steve Wesley Brown*, Documentation and the Archiving of the Space Shuttle Wind Tunnel Test Data Base - Volume 2: User's Guide for the Archived Space Shuttle Wind Tunnel Test Data Base, TM-104806-vol2, 1/1/1995, pp. 188, *Lockheed Engineering & Sciences Company Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: Space Shuttles, Wind Tunnel Tests, Aerodynamic Characteristics, Heat Transfer, Dynamic Structural Analysis, Aerothermodynamics

    Abstract: Development of the Space Shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers the evolution of Space Shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.



  3. *Carlos Sampaio; *Terry Fleming; *Mark Stuart; Lynn Backemeyer, Evaluation of Restraint System Concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module Flight Demonstration, TM-104808, 1/1/1995, pp. total unavailable, *Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company Houston, TX 77058.

    Keywords: International Space Station; Japanese Experiment Module; Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test; manipulators; Space Station payloads; constraints

    Abstract: The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 for evaluation. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the payload's perceived success or failure. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A allowed evaluation of the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the restraint system. Results indicated that access to the switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be moved. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position. The lower body restraint was preferred over foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint.



  4. David S.F. Portree, Mir Hardware Heritage, RP-1357, 3/1/1995, pp. 219, *Originally published as JSC-26770 in October 1994.

    Keywords: Mir Space Station, Salyut Space Station, Soyuz Spacecraft, Zond Space Probes, Spacecraft Docking, Space Stations, Soviet Spacecraft

    Abstract: The heritage of the major Mir complex hardware elements is described. These elements include Soyuz-TM and Progress-M; the Kvant, Kvant 2, and Kristall modules; and the Mir base block. Configuration changes and major mission events of the Salyut 6, Salyut 7, and Mir multiport space stations are described in detail for the period 1977-1994. A comparative chronology of U.S. and Soviet/Russian manned spaceflight is also given for that period. The 68 illustrations include comparative scale drawings of U.S. and Russian spacecraft as well as sequential drawings depicting missions and mission events.



  5. Ronald L. Newman, STS-61 Mission Director's Post-Mission Report, TM-104803, 1/1/1995, pp. 154, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Mission Planning, Hubble Space Telescope, Postmission Analysis (Spacecraft), Operations Research, Management Planning

    Abstract: To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.



  6. Franklin R. Chang Diaz, Michael M. Hsu*, Ellen Braden, Ivan Johnson, Tien Fang Yang**, Rapid Mars Transits With Exhaust-Modulated Plasma Propulsion, TP-1995-3539, 3/1/1995, pp. 14, *US Navy det Dept of Physics, Cambridge University, U.K. **Yang Technologies, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Keywords: robotic missions, Mars missions, specific impulse, constant power, plasma propulsion, trajectory optimization, Mars probes, propulsion system performance

    Abstract: The operational characteristics of the Exhaust-Modulated Plasma Rocket are described. Four basic human and robotic mission scenarios to Mars are analyzed using numerical optimization techniques at variable specific impulse and constant power. The device is well suited for "split-sprint" missions, allowing fast, one-way low-payload human transits of 90 to 104 days, as well as slower, 180-day, high-payload robotic precursor flights. Abort capabilities, essential for human missions, are also explored.



  7. William C. Schneider, Ph.D., Compiler, 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, CP-3293, 5/1/1995, pp. 414, Proceedings of a symposium cosponsored by Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94088, and held at South Shore Harbour Conference Facility, League City, Texas, May 17-19, 1995. Responsible person is William C. Schneider, Ph.D., Engineering Directorate, telephone number 713-483-0313.

    Keywords: spacecraft components, array deployment; robotics; end effectors; actuators; dampers; reaction compensation; pointing mechanisms; antenna deployment; booms

    Abstract: The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.



  8. Sherry A. Land; Jane T. Malin; Carroll Thronesbery*; Debra L. Schreckenghost*, A Guide to Developing Intelligent Monitoring Systems, TM-104807, 7/1/1995, pp. 103, *Metrica Inc., Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: Expert Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Computer Systems Programs, Monitors, Real Time Operation, Manuals

    Abstract: This reference guide for developers of intelligent monitoring systems is based on lessons learned by developers of the DEcision Support SYstem (DESSY), an expert system that monitors Space Shuttle telemetry data in real time. DESSY makes inferences about commands, state transitions, and simple failures. It performs failure detection rather than in-depth failure diagnostics. A listing of rules from DESSY and cue cards from DESSY subsystems are included to give the development community a better understanding of the selected model system. The G-2 programming tool used in developing DESSY provides an object-oriented, rule-based environment, but many of the principles in use here can be applied to any type of monitoring intelligent system. The step-by-step instructions and examples given for each stage of development are in G-2, but can be used with other development tools. This guide first defines the authors' concept of real-time monitoring systems, then tells prospective developers how to determine system requirements, how to build the system through a combined design/development process, and how to solve problems involved in working with real-time data. It explains the relationships among operational prototyping, software evolution, and the user interface. It also explains methods of testing, verification, and validation. It includes suggestions for preparing reference documentation and training users.



  9. George A. Zupp, Jr., Editor, A Perspective On the Human-Rating Process of U.S. Spacecraft: Both Past and Present, SP-6104, 4/1/1995, pp. 14, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: human factors engineering, man machine systems, manned spaceflight

    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to characterize the process of Human-Rating as employed by NASA for human spaceflight. An Agency-wide committee was formed in November 1992 to develop a Human-Rating Requirements Definition for Launch Vehicles based on conventional (historical) methods. The committee members were from NASA Headquarters, Marshall Space Flight Center, Kennedy Space Center, Stennis Space Center, and Johnson Space Center. After considerable discussion and analysis, committee members concluded that human-rating is the process of satisfying the mutual constraints of cost, schedule, mission performance, and risk while addressing the requirements for human safety, human performance, and human health management and care.



  10. John H. Cross*, Editor, Third International Workshop on Ion Mobility Spectrometry, CP-3301, 4/1/1995, pp. 344, *KRUG Life Sciences, Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: Ion Motion, Mass Spectrometers, Gas Chromatography, Chemical Analysis, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Conferences

    Abstract: Basic research in ion mobility spectrometry has given rise to rapid advancement in hardware development and applications. The Third International Workshop on Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was held October 16-19, 1994, at Johnson Space Center to provide a forum for investigators to present the most recent results of both basic and applied IMS research. Presenters included manufacturers and various users, including military research organizations and drug enforcement agencies. Thirty papers were given in the following five sessions: Fundamental IMS Studies, Instrument Development, Hyphenated IMS Techniques, Applications, and Data Reduction and Signal Processing. Advances in hardware development, software development, and user applications are described.



  11. Mark J. Cintala; Kathleen M. McBride*, Block Distributions on the Lunar Surface: A Comparison Between Measurements Obtained From Surface and Orbital Photography, TM-104804, 10/1/1995, pp. 44, *Lockheed Engineering and Science Company, Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: Lunar Landing Sites; Lunar Topography; Lunar Maps; Lunar Photography; Lunar Orbiter; Lunar Probes

    Abstract: Among the hazards that must be negotiated by lunar-landing spacecraft are blocks on the surface of the Moon. Unfortunately, few data exist that can be used to evaluate the threat posed by such blocks to landing spacecraft. Perhaps the best information is that obtained from Surveyor photographs, but those data do not extend to the dimensions of the large blocks that would pose the greatest hazard. Block distributions in the vicinities of the Surveyor I, III, VI, and VII sites have been determined from Lunar Orbiter photography and are presented here. Only large (i.e., greater than or equal to 2.5 m) blocks are measurable in these pictures, resulting in a size gap between the Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter distributions. Nevertheless, the orbital data are self-consistent, a claim supported by the similarity in behavior between the subsets of data from the Surveyor I, III, and VI sites and by the good agreement in position (if not slopes) between the data obtained from Surveyor III photography and those derived from the Lunar Orbiter photographs. Confidence in the results is also justified by the well-behaved distribution of large blocks at the surveyor site. Comparisons between the Surveyor distributions and those derived from the orbital photography permit these observations: (1) in all cases but that for Surveyor III, the density of large blocks is overestimated by extrapolation of the Surveyor-derived trends, (2) the slopes of the Surveyor-derived distributions are consistently lower than those determined for the large blocks, and (3) these apparent disagreements could be mitigated if the overall shapes of the cumulative lunar block populations were nonlinear, allowing for different slopes over different size intervals. The relatively large gaps between the surveyor-derived and Orbiter-derived data sets, however, do not permit a determination of those shapes.



  12. Carlos R. Ortiz Longo and Steven L. Rickman, Method for the Calculation of Spacecraft Umbra and Penumbra Shadow Terminator Points, TP-1995-3547, 4/1/1995, pp. 35, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: umbras, quaternions, iteration methodology/process, terminator lines

    Abstract: A method for calculating orbital shadow terminator points is presented. The current method employs the use of an iterative process which is used for an accurate determination of shadow points. This calculation methodology is required, since orbital perturbation effects can introduce large errors when a spacecraft orbits a planet in a high altitute and/or highly elliptical orbit. To compensate for the required iteration methodology, all reference frame change definitions and calculations are performed with quaternions. Quaternion algebra significantly reduces the computational time required for the accurate determination of shadow terminator points.



  13. Orbiter Corrosion Control Review Board, Space Shuttle Orbiter Corrosion History, 1981-1993, TM-1995-104810, 5/1/1995, pp. 38, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Corrosion, Space Shuttle Orbiters, Histories, Life (durability)

    Abstract: The Orbiter Corrosion Control Review Board is preparing a set of reports concerning orbiter corrosion. This report summarizes past corrosion issues experienced by the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Design considerations for corrosion prevention and inspection methods are reviewed. Significant corrosion issues involving structures and subsystems are analyzed, including corrective actions taken. Notable successes and failures of corrosion mitigation systems and procedures are discussed. The projected operating environment used for design is contrasted with current conditions in flight and conditions during ground processing.



  14. Friedrich Horz, Mark J. Cintala, Ronald P. Bernhard*, Frank Cardenas*,, Penetration Experiments in Aluminum 1100 Targets Using Soda-Lime Glass Projectiles, TM-104813, 6/1/1995, pp. 328, *Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company Houston, TX 77058.

    Keywords: terminal ballistics, hypervelocity, space debris

    Abstract: The cratering and penetration behavior of annealed aluminum 1100 targets, with thickness varied from several cm to ultra-thin foils < 1 micro-m thick, were experimentally investigated using 3.2 mm dia. spherical soda-lime glass projectiles at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s. The objective was to establish quantitative, dimensional relationships between initial impact conditions (impact velocity, projectile dia., and target thickness and the dia. of the resulting crater or penetration hole). Such dimensional relationships and calibration experiments are needed to extract diameters and fluxes of hypervelocity particles from space-exposed surfaces and to predict performance of certain shields. The cratering behavior of aluminum 1100 is fairly well predicted, but crater depth is modestly deeper for our silicate impactors than the canonical value based on aluminum projectiles and aluminum 6061-T6 targets. The ballistic-limit thickness was also different. These differences attest to the great sensitivity of detailed crater geometry and penetration behavior on the physical properties of both the target and impactor. Each penetration experiment was equipped with a witness plate to monitor the nature of the debris plume emanating from the rear of the target. Both penetration hole and witness-plate spray patterns systematically evolve in response to projectile diameter/target thickness. The relative dimensions of the projectile and target totally dominate the experimental products documented in this report; impact velocity is an important contributor as well, but is of subordinate significance for the witness-plate spray patterns.



  15. Richard Bannerot* and Donn G. Sickorez, Editors, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program - 1994, Volume 1, CR-188410, 7/1/1995, pp. 202, *University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: information transfer, research, research projects, urban research, engineering, science, universities, university program

    Abstract: The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to (1) further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1994.



  16. Richard Bannerot* and Donn G. Sickorez, Editors, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program - 1994, Volume 2, CR-188410, 7/1/1995, pp. 211, *University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: information transfer, research, research projects, urban research, engineering, science, universities, university program

    Abstract: The JSC NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and JSC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965 are to (1) further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project in collaboration with a NASA JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects completed by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1994.



  17. Mark Holly*, The Effects of Space Radiation on Flight Film, CR-188427, 9/1/1995, pp. 27, *DynCorp, Houston, Texas.

    Keywords: photographic film, radiation effects, spaceborne photography

    Abstract: The Shuttle and its cargo are occasionally exposed to an amount of radiation large enough to create nonimage forming exposures (fog) on photographic flight film. The television/photography working group proposed a test plan to quantify the sensitivity of photographic films to space radiation. This plan was flown on STS-37 and was later incorporated into a detailed supplementary objective (DSO) which was flown on STS-48. This DSO addressed the effects of significant space radiation on representative samples of six highly sensitive flight films. In addition, a lead-lined bag was evaluated as a potential shield for flight film against space radiation.



  18. Evelyne Orndoff, Development and Evaluation of Polybenzoxazole Fibrous Structures, TM-104814, 9/1/1995, pp. 18, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Polyphenyls, Fibers, Polymer Blends, Materials Tests

    Abstract: Woven and braided Polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures have been developed for aerospace applications. The properties of PBO fibers are compared to those of other high performance fibers. PBO is unique for combining excellent flammability properties with the highest tensile strength and modulus of all synthetic organic fibers. The PBO structures are specifically developed to be compared to similar Kevlar structures. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and oxidative properties of the PBO woven and braided structures are determined. The resistance to various chemicals and to UV light is evaluated. Recommendations for specific aerospace applications are given with comments for further development and industrial applications.




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