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  1. A. Hanford, Ph.D., Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric Fiscal Year 2005, CR-2006-213694, 3/1/2006, pp. 105, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: ALS, metric, SIMA

    Abstract: This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2005. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents.



  2. D. Hagan, P.h.D, Biomechanical Evaluation of Locomotion on the Russian BD-1 Treadmill in a Weightless Environment (KC-135), TM-2006-213718, 3/1/2006, pp. 38, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: exercise physiology, locomotion, physiological effects, Aerospace medicine, astronaut performance, bone demineralization, gravitational effects.

    Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate locomotion on the Russian BD-1 non-motorized treadmill under three conditions weightlessness (0G) without a simulated subject positioning device, or horizontal restraint strap (RS), normal gravity (1G) without a RS, and 1G with a RS. Various outcome measures were evaluated, including the applied external load (EL), vertical ground reaction force (GRF), the ability to achieve specific locomotion speeds, and joint kinematics. The goal of this research was to better understand how locomotion and the related forces experienced by the musculoskeletal system during non-motorized treadmill locomotion in 0G compare to locomotion on the same device in 1G.



  3. Alfred Lunde,* James Lee Foster, Jr.**, A 160-Day Simulation of Space Station Debris Avoidance Operations with the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM), TM-2006-213720, 5/1/2006, pp. 74, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: space debris; Gamma Ray Observatory; environment effects; penetration; flux; maneuvers; aerospace environments

    Abstract: A joint simulation was performed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) to obtain information concerning the current space debris population for debris avoidance operations. Simulation results, which are extrapolated within this document, are intended for use in future space station operations. The simulation, performed from September 1992 to March 1993, used the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO)--orbiting at 28.5-deg orbital inclination, and substituting for a space station orbital inclination--as a target vehicle. As the simulation was carried out, USSPACECOM used the database maintained by its tracking network to search for conjunctions between the GRO and the tracked debris, and then transmitted results of the simulation to JSC for analysis. Over the entire altitude band studied, the debris flux and frequency of penetration of space shuttle orbiter "alert" and "maneuver" boxes were found to be much lower than the predictions of current models. However, if a maneuver box similar to that used for the space shuttle is used for a future space station, the number of maneuvers to avoid orbital debris will be prohibitive. Results of this study showed a very dynamic debris environment over the time period and altitudes covered.



  4. James L. Hyde; Ronald P. Bernhard, STS-111 (OV-105 Flight 18) Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Postflight Assessment, TP-2006-213716, 4/1/2006, pp. 54, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: micrometeoroids; space debris; damage assessment; risk; impact damage; environment protection; environment simulation

    Abstract: STS-111 was the eighteenth flight for the Space Shuttle Endeavour. This UF-2 mission to the International Space Station (ISS) involved a crew rotation and the delivery of new supplies and experiments in the multi-purpose logistics module. The mission, which took place between June 5 and June 19, 2002, had an orbital inclination of 51.6 deg and an altitude of about 389 km (210 n. mi.). This report on the meteoroid/orbital debris (M/OD) experienced during the mission of STS-111 is divided into two sections: The "As-Flown Assessment" section compares the results of a risk analysis using postflight attitude data with postflight damage observations and preflight risk predictions; and the "Postflight Damage Inspection" section documents the M/Od that was observed during inspections at Kennedy Space Center following the mission. Preflight and postflight assessments were performed using BUMPER-II code with the ORDEM 2000 orbital debris environment and the SSP-30425 meteoroid environment. At Shuttle/ISS altitudes, the new environment predicts a higher number of particles in the 0.01-mm-to-4-mm-diameter range and a fewer number of particles in the 4-mm-to-10-cm diameter range.



  5. J. Bentley, M. Leach, f. McCleary, C. Smith, J. Norcross, D. Hagan, Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Man-In-The-Loop Test, TP-2006-213717, 5/1/2006, pp. 46, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Human factor engineering, Exercise physiology: muscular tonus, physical fitness, weightlessness, Space manufacturing,

    Abstract: The interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is currently being flown aboard the International Space Starion to mitigate the loss of muscle mass and muscular strength associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, iRED is limited in the maximal loads that it can provide, and thus, is viewed as an interim solution to the loss of muscular strength. Thus, NASA has initiated the design and construction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED as a long-term solution to the preservation of muscle strength during extended habitation of microgravity environments. The ARED is designed to provide greater exercise capability than iRED. The primary resistance mechanism in the ARED is a pair of vacuum cylinders containing pistons. Preliminary life cycle testing indicates that the ARED will endure over one million cycles without critical failure. However, life cycle testing is much different than human subject testing. Often, humans put unique forces on devices that are not present during machine testing. Thus, the purpose of this evaluation was to test the functionality durability and reliability of the ARED during exercise executed by human subjects.



  6. Artem L. Ponomarev, NASA Radiation Track Image GUI for Assessing Space Radiation Biological Effects, TP-2006-213719, 5/1/2006, pp. 30, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: galactic cosmic rays; terrestrial radiation; deoxyribonucleic acid; simulation; energy transfer; chromosomes; ions; models

    Abstract: The high-charge high-energy (HZE) ion components of the galactic cosmic rays when compared to terrestrial forms of radiations present unique challenges to biological systems. In this paper we present a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) breakage model to visualize and analyze the impact of chromatin domains and DNA loops on clustering of DNA damage from X rays, protons, and HZE ions. Our model of DNA breakage is based on a stochastic process of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formulation that includes the amorphous model of the radiation track and a polymer model of DNA packed in the cell nucleus. Our model is a Monte-Carlo simulation based on a randomnly located DSB cluster formulation that accomodates both high- and low-linear energy transfer radiations. We demonstrate that HZE ions have a strong impact on DSB clustering, both along the chromosome length and in the nucleus volume. The effects of chromosomal domains and DNA loops on the DSB fragment-size distribution and the spatial distribution of DSB in the nucleus were studied. We compare our model predictions with the spatial distribution of DSB obtained from experiments. The implications of our model predictions for radiation protection are discussed.



  7. Donald A. Thomas, Julie A. Robinson, Judy Tate, Tracy Thumm, Inspiring the Next Generation: Student Experiments and Educational Activities on the International Space Station, 2001-2006, TP-2006-213721, 5/1/2006, pp. 108, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: education; teaching; International Space Station; instructors; mathematics principles; engineering; science; instructions

    Abstract: One important objective of NASA has always been to inspire the next generation. NASA and human space flight have a unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers. The presence of humans onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for more than five years now has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing the interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet even before the Expedition 1 crew arrived at station in November 2000, experiments with student participation were being conducted onboard ISS in support of NASA missions. One of NASA's protein crystal growth experiments had been delivered to station by the shuttle Atlantis during STS-106 in September 2000 and was returned to Earth six weeks later aboard the shuttle Discovery during the STS-92 mission. From very early on it was recognized that students would have a strong interest in the ISS, and that this would provide a unique opportunity for them to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects on ISS. It should be noted that participation is not limited to U.S. students but involves the 16 International Partner countries and various other countries under special commercial agreements.



  8. S. Gomez, Three Years of Global Positioning System Experience on International Space Station, TP-2006-213168, 6/1/2006, pp. 24, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Global positioning system, position indicators, orbit determination, space navigation, software engineering, software reliability.

    Abstract: The international Space Station global positioning system (GPS) receiver was activated in April 2002. Since that time, numerous software anomalies surfaced that had to be worked around. Some of the software problems required waivers, such as the time function, while others required extensive operator intervention, such as numerous power cycles. Eventually enough anomalies surfaced that the three pieces of code included in the GPS unit have been re-written and the GPS units upgraded. The technical aspects of the problems are discussed, as well as the underlying causes that led to the delivery of a product that has had so many problems. The technical aspects of the problems included physical phenomena that were not well understood, such as the affect that the ionosphere would have on the GPS measurements. The underlying causes were traced to inappropriate use of legacy software, changing requirements, inadequate software processes, unrealistic schedules, incorrect contract type, and unclear ownership responsibilities.



  9. James C. Maida, Charles K. Bowen, Ph.D., John W. Pace, Enhanced Lighting Techniques and Augmented Reality to Improve Human Task Performance, TP-2006-213724, 7/1/2006, pp. 34, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: One of the most versatile tools designed for use on the International Space Station (ISS) is the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) robot. Operators for this system are trained at NASA Johnson Space Center using a robotic simulator, the Dexterous Manipulator Trainer (DMT), which performs most SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. The SPDM is controlled from a standard Robotic Workstation. A key feature of the SPDM and DMT is the Force/Moment Accommodation (FMA) system, which limits the contact forces and moments acting on the robot components, on its payload – an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) – and on the receptacle for the ORU. The FMA system helps to automatically alleviate any binding of the ORU as it is inserted or withdrawn from a receptacle, but it is limited in its correction capability. A successful ORU insertion generally requires that the reference axes of the ORU and receptacle be aligned to within approximately 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree of nominal values. The only guides available for the operator to achieve these alignment tolerances are views from any available video cameras. No special registration markings are provided on the ORU or receptacle, so the operator must use the intrinsic features in the video display to perform the pre-insertion alignment task. Since optimum camera views may not be available and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit viewing periods, long times are anticipated for performing some ORU insertion or extraction operations. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist with SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on the end effector camera view to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment.

    Abstract: One of the most versatile tools designed for use on the International Space Station (ISS) is the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) robot. Operators for this system are trained at NASA Johnson Space Center using a robotic simulator, the Dexterous Manipulator Trainer (DMT), which performs most SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. The SPDM is controlled from a standard Robotic Workstation. A key feature of the SPDM and DMT is the Force/Moment Accommodation (FMA) system, which limits the contact forces and moments acting on the robot components, on its payload – an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) – and on the receptacle for the ORU. The FMA system helps to automatically alleviate any binding of the ORU as it is inserted or withdrawn from a receptacle, but it is limited in its correction capability. A successful ORU insertion generally requires that the reference axes of the ORU and receptacle be aligned to within approximately 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree of nominal values. The only guides available for the operator to achieve these alignment tolerances are views from any available video cameras. No special registration markings are provided on the ORU or receptacle, so the operator must use the intrinsic features in the video display to perform the pre-insertion alignment task. Since optimum camera views may not be available and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit viewing periods, long times are anticipated for performing some ORU insertion or extraction operations. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist with SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on the end effector camera view to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment.



  10. Suderman, M.T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts4, D.M.; Peters, C.J.; Shope, R.; and Goodwin, T.J., Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts For Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection, TP-2006-213723, 6/1/2006, pp. 40, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Global positioning system, position indicators, orbit determination, space navigation, software engineering, software reliability.

    Abstract: A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen–antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.



  11. Prepared by: Space and Life Sciences Directorate, C-9 and Other Microgravity Simulations, TM-2006-213727, 9/15/2006, pp. 202, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Weightlessness, weightlessness simulation, parabolic flight, zero gravity, aerospace medicine, astronaut performance, bioprocessing, space manufacturing.

    Abstract: This document represents a summary of medical and scientific evaluations conducted aboard the C-9 or other NASA-sponsored aircraft from June 30, 2005, to June 30, 2006. Included is a general overview of investigations manifested and coordinated by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office. A collection of brief reports that describe tests conducted aboard the NASA-sponsored aircraft follows the overview. Principal investigators and test engineers contributed significantly to the content of the report, describing their particular experiment or hardware evaluation. Although this document follows general guidelines, the format of individual reports varies to accommodate differences in experiment design and procedures. This document concludes with an appendix that provides background information concerning the Reduced Gravity Program.



  12. Sandra A. Wagner, The Apollo Experience Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management, TP-2006-213726, 10/1/2006, pp. 71, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Apollo, lunar dust, exploration vision, lessons learned, lunar module, command modlue, contamination

    Abstract: The Apollo Mission Reports and Technical Debriefs were used to identify problems, solutions, and lessons learned. These documents were chosen because they were prepared immediately after the missions, while crewmembers memories of their lunar experience were still fresh. This report intentionally did not include later documentation and statements by crews, because memories fade and change, this methodology should produce a historically factual report. This report should be considered a starting point.



  13. Julie A. Robinson,* Jennifer L. Rhatigan,* David K. Baumann,* Judy Tate,** Tracy Thumm**, International Space Station Research Summary Through Expedition 10, TP-2006-213146, 9/1/2006, pp. 142, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: International Space Station; research facilities; bioastronautics; space technology experiments; biology; physical science, space flight, technology assessment

    Abstract: This report summarizes research accomplishments on the International Space Station (ISS) through the first ten Expeditions. When research programs for early Expeditions were established, five administrative organizations were executing research on ISS: bioastronautics research, fundamental space biology, physical science, space product development, and space flight. The Vision for Space Exploration led to changes in NASA's administrative structures, so we have grouped experiments topically by scientific themes--human research for exploration, physical and biological sciences, technology development, observing the Earth, and educating the inspiring the next generation--even when those do not correspond to the administrative structure at the time at which they were completed. The research organizations at the time at which the experiments flew are preserved in the appendix of this document. These early investigations on ISS have laid the groundwork for research planning for Expeditions to come. Humans performing scientific investigations on ISS serve as a model for the goals of future Exploration missions. The success of a wide variety of investigations is an important hallmark of early research on ISS. Of the investigations summarized here, some are completed with results released, some are completed with preliminary results, and some remain ongoing.



  14. Jerry Goodman, Crew Station Aspects of Manned Spacecraft, TP-2006-213725, 10/1/2006, pp. 434, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Manned Spacecraft, Apollo Spacecraft, Vostok spacecraft, Voskhod manned spacecraft, crew workstations

    Abstract: This thesis presents a frame work for a crew station handbook and includes samples of the broader areas which such a handbook should cover. The completed sections of this thesis serve as extensive treatments of the topics covered. The content of the individual sections of Chapters I and II varied with my experience and knowledge.



  15. Richard S. Johnston, Lawrence f. Dietlein, M.D., and Charles A. Berry, M.D., Biomedical Results of Apollo, SP-2006-368, 10/1/2006, pp. 580, Previously published under JSC 12856 in 1975.

    Keywords: long duration space flight, workloads (psychophysiology), fatigue, human performance, mental performance, physical work, stress, work capacity.

    Abstract: The daily Skylab timelines have been reduced to categorical activities and the crew day has been broken down into man-hours expended in each of three separate categories: self sustenance activities, operational activities, and payload activities. The analysis shows that the average day aboard Skylab consisted of 14 hours of self sustenance activity, 6 1/2 hours of payload activity, and 3 1/2 hours of operational activity. The 10 hour workday represented by the combined payload and operational activity is recommended as the baseline workday for future manned missions. Additionally, until further experience or data indicates the feasibility of more than 90-day orbital stay times, the 90-day crew rotation is recommended as the baseline for planning long duration orbital projects.



  16. Andrew F. J. Abercromby, MEI Technologies, Inc.; Sherry S. Thaxton, Lockheed Martin; Elizabeth A. Onady, LZ Tech; Sudhakar L. Rajulue, NASA, Johnson Space Center, Reach Envelope and Field of Vision Quantification in Mark III Space Suit using Delaunay Triangulation, TP-2006-213729, 11/1/2006, pp. 58, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Weightlessness, weightlessness simulation, parabolic flight, zero gravity, aerospace medicine, astronaut performance, bioprocessing, space manufacturing.

    Abstract: The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) project is focused on the development of a rover vehicle that can be utilized by two crewmembers during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) on the moon and Mars. The current SCOUT vehicle can transport two suited astronauts riding in open cockpit seats. Among the aspects currently being developed is the cockpit design and layout. This process includes the identification of possible locations for a socket to which a crewmember could connect a portable life support system (PLSS) for recharging power, air, and cooling while seated in the vehicle. The spaces in which controls and connectors may be situated within the vehicle are constrained by the reach and vision capabilities of the suited crewmembers. Accordingly, quantification of the volumes within which suited crewmembers can both see and reach relative to the vehicle represents important information during the design process.



  17. Ashot E. Sargsyan, Douglas R. Hamilton, Shannon L. Melton, Jeffrey Young, The International Space Station Ultrasound Imaging Capability Overview for Prospective Users, TP-2006-213731, 12/1/2006, pp. 70, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: medical equipment; telemedicine; risk; clinical medicine; patients; microgravity applications

    Abstract: The feasibility of ultrasonic imaging in human space flight has been demonstrated on NASA and Russian spacecraft. Several ultrasound systems have been successfully operated by both physician and non-physician astronauts and cosmonauts in pre-International Space Station (ISS) space flights, yielding valuable scientific information. A multipurpose ultrasound system was adapted for space and installed aboard ISS to continue human research in microgravity environments at a new level of sophistication and fidelity. Alone or in combination with other components of the Human Research Facility (HRF), this system provides a research capability never before available in space. The system can operate in B, M, Color Doppler, Power Angiography, Flow Propagation, Pulsed Spectral Doppler, and Continuous Wave Doppler modes and their combinations. Thus, the HRF Ultrasound System allows the realization of the great scientific potential of ultrasound imaging in conditions of space flight, acquiring morphological/morphometric and physiological/functional information from virtually every area or organ system of the human body. This will now allow ultrasound to be used in space for medical risk mitigation and has driven the medical concept of operations to recognize and treat as many medical conditions as possible while on orbit, delaying or avoiding return to a definitive medical care facility.




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