Johnson Technical Reports Server
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  1. John K. De Witt, Gail P. Perusek, Jason Bentley, W. Brent Edwards, Kelly M. Gilkey, Beth E. Lewandowski, Sergey Samorezov, Mark. C. Savina, R. Donald Hagan, Kinematic and Electromyographic Evaluation of Locomotion on the Enhanced Zero-gravity Locomotion Simulator: A Comparison of External Loading Mechanisms, TP-2007-214764, 1/1/2008, pp. 40, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Kinematics, exercise physiology, fitness

    Abstract: Purpose: Determine how External Load (EL) type affects locomotion patterns and muscular activity on the enhanced Zero-gravity Locomotion Simulator (eZLS) when using bungees or a linear motor subject loading device. Eight subjects were suspended on the eZLS while walking at 3 mph and running at 7 mph. The EL was provided by either bungees or a linear motor subject loading device (LM-SLD) at approximately 55% and 90% of body weight during the exercise. Joint kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographical activity of lower body musculature were measured during each condition. Repeated measures analysis of variance were tested for differences between EL types within load levels on eZLS. There were few differences in locomotion patterns and muscular activity between loading mechanisms. GRF were greater with the LM-SLD than with bungees during eZLS locomotion. GRF magnitudes for both devices were lower than previously reported values obtained during upright locomotion in normal gravity, but similar to those found in actual microgravity. Greater GRF with the LM-SLD suggests that use of a constant-force SLD may be of potential benefit during treadmill exercise because locomotion patterns do not change, but subjects experience increased force magnitude and loading rates applied at the feet.



  2. Johnny Conkin, Universities Space Research Association, Risk Assessment of Acute Mountain Sickness in the Crew Exploration Vehicles, TP-2008-214759, 1/1/2008, pp. 114, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: decompression sickness; extravehicular activity; Crew Exploration Vehicle; Lunar Surface Access Module; long-term surface habitats; microgravity, impacts of

    Abstract: To limit the risk of fire and reduce the risk of decompression sickness and prebreathe time to support frequent activities on the moon and Mars, a hypobaric and mildly hypoxic living environment is considered for the Crew Exploration Vehicle, Lunar Surface Access Module, and long-term surface habitats. Superimposed on physiological adjustments to living in a hypobaric hypoxia (HH) environment are those associated with adaptation to microgravity (mG). Outward manifestations of physiological adaptations may present as signs and symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). The signs and symptoms of AMS are undesirable, as they would impact crew health and performance. A literature review suggests that: (1) there is an absolute pressure effect per se on AMS, so the higher the altitude for a given computed hypoxic alveolar oxygen (O2) partial pressure (PAO2) the greater the AMS response; (2) about 25% of adults would experience AMS near 2,000 m altitude; (3) there is no direct evidence that HH synergizes with adaptive changes during simulated mG to dramatically increase hematocrit and blood viscosity; and (4) only susceptible astronauts would develop mild and transient AMS with exposure to 8.0 psia (16,000 ft) while breathing 32% O2 and simultaneously adapting to mG.



  3. Craig M. Harvey, Lockheed Martin Space Operations, Wearability, Comfort and Field of View Findings from the Integrated Launch Suit Test, TP-2007-214754, 1/1/2008, pp. 54, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Suits, comfort, field of vision

    Abstract: The primary objective of the Launch Suit Test was to evaluate crewmember comfort in two planetary suit concepts during 1-g launch conditions similar to those to be experienced in the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report addresses suit wear in a launch pad configuration; however, the overarching question is: “Should planetary suits be further considered for launch/entry suits?” The test plan outlined four objectives: assess crewmember comfort in the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Mark III and the Rear Entry ILC Dover Suit (REI-Suit) in a recumbent position (with helmet); determine the visibility envelope of crewmembers while in the ACES, Mark III, and REI-Suit in a recumbent position (with helmet); determine the ability of crewmembers to sit and stand from a recumbent position unassisted while in the ACES, Mark III, and REI-Suit (with helmet); and determine the reach envelope and motion capability for the ACES, Mark III, and REI-Suit in a recumbent position (with helmet). This report addresses objectives 1 through 3. The findings support further study of the planetary suit for use as a potential launch/entry suit.



  4. Thomas J. Goodwin, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections, TP-2008-214771, 3/1/2008, pp. 34, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: epithelium, respiratory, cells, cell culturing, cultured cells, in vitro methods and tests

    Abstract: In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs), from this point forward referred to as TLAs, were engineered in rotating wall vessel technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues, thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell and viral interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm that these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host’s immune system.



  5. K. S. Jarvis, T. L. Parr-Thumm, K. J. Abercromby, E. S. Barker, J. L. Africano, P. F. Sydney, B. M. Africano, M. J. Matney, E. G. Stansbery, and M. K. Mulrooneye, CCD Debris Telescope Observations of the Geosynchronous Orbital Debris Environment Observing Year: 2000, TM-2008-214772, 2/1/2008, pp. 72, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Space debrisd, environmental effects, fragments,

    Abstract: Orbital debris is a concern to all nations that use satellites or launch space vehicles. The debris field scattered near Earth’s geosynchronous orbit (GEO) poses a threat to anything residing in or passing through it. To mitigate risk and minimize this environment’s expansion, the threat must be understood. NASA has been using the Charged-Coupled Device Debris Telescope (CDT), a transportable 32-cm Schmidt telescope located near Cloudcroft, New Mexico, to help characterize the debris environment in GEO. Using the CDT, researchers conducted systematic searches of the GEO environment as part of an international measurement campaign under the auspices of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The objectives for this survey are to determine the extent and character of debris in GEO, specifically by obtaining distributions for the brightness, inclination, right ascension of ascending node (RAAN), and mean motion for the debris. Tests using the CDT for this campaign took place in late 1997 and data collection began in January 1998. This report describes the data taken and all of the data reduction details to make it a standalone report on the Calendar Year (CY) 2000 activities.



  6. K. S. Jarvis, T. L. Parr-Thumm, K. J. Abercromby, E. Barker, J. L. Africano, P. F. Sydney, B. M. Africano, M. J. Matney, E. G. Stansbery, and M. K. Mulrooneye, CCD Debris Telescope Observations of the Geosynchronous Orbital Debris Environment Observing Year: 2001, TM-2008-214773, 2/1/2008, pp. 78, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Space debris, environmental effects, fragments,

    Abstract: Orbital debris is a concern to all nations that use satellites or launch space vehicles. The debris field scattered near Earth’s geosynchronous orbit (GEO) poses a threat to anything residing in or passing through it. To mitigate risk and minimize this environment’s expansion, the threat must be understood. NASA has been using the Charged-Coupled Device Debris Telescope (CDT), a transportable 32-cm Schmidt telescope located near Cloudcroft, New Mexico, to help characterize the debris environment in GEO. Using the CDT, researchers conducted systematic searches of the GEO environment as part of an international measurement campaign under the auspices of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The objectives for this survey are to determine the extent and character of debris in GEO, specifically by obtaining distributions for the brightness, inclination, right ascension of ascending node (RAAN), and mean motion for the debris. Tests using the CDT for this campaign took place in late 1997 and data collection began in January 1998. This report describes the data taken and all of the data-reduction details to make it a stand-alone report on the Calendar Year (CY) 2001 activities.



  7. K.J. Abercromby, E.S. Barker, K. S. Jarvis, T. L. Parr-Thumm, J. L. Africano,, The Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Environment as Determined by the CCD Debris Telescope Observations between 1998 and 2002: Final Report, TP-2008-214774, 2/1/2008, pp. 54, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Space debris, environmental effects, fragments,

    Abstract: Understanding the evolving debris environment is essential if the human race continues to venture into space. Of particular importance is the geosynchronous environment in which satellites have been placed since the 1960s. Debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) has an enhanced potential for collision with operational satellites due to the extremely long lifetimes of the debris. The Charged Coupled Device (CCD) Debris Telescope (CDT) conducted systematic searches of the GEO environment to help characterize and determine the extent of the debris found in this volume of near-Earth space. The observations provided distributions in brightness, mean motion, inclination, range, and Right Ascension of Ascending Node (RAAN) of detected debris. Yearly reports (NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) publications) described details of the observing program and observed distributions (Jarvis et al., 2001, 2002, 2007a, 2007b). In this final report, a summary and comparison of the observations is conducted. All observed magnitudes have been corrected for standard solar distance, a Lambertian phase function at phase angle 0°, and an observed range, when possible. Orbital elements were derived from two or more astrometric positions based on the assumption of a circular orbit (eccentricity = 0°). We define the dimensions of a GEO environment to be between 34,000 km and 40,000 km and between 0° and 17° inclination based on the assumed circular orbit (ACO) elements of the observations. The scope of the paper is limited to the population distributions of objects found in this defined GEO environment.



  8. Stuart M.C. Lee, MS*; John K. DeWitt, MS*; Cassie Smith, MS**; Mitzi S. Laughlin, PhD*; James A. Loehr, MS*; Jason Norcross, MS*; R. Donald Hagan, PhD (deceased)***, Physiologic Responses and Biomechanical Aspects of Motorized and Nonmotorized Treadmill Exercise: A Ground-based Evaluation of Treadmills for Use on the International Space Station, TP-2008-213734, 3/1/2008, pp. 100, NASA Johnson Space Center.

    Keywords: deconditioning; physical exercise; orthostatic tolerance; bone demineralization; treadmills, physical exercise; treadmills, physical fitness

    Abstract: Space flight-induced deconditioning includes the loss of aerobic exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance, muscle strength and endurance, and bone mineral density. These reductions may compromise crew members’ ability to perform mission-critical activities and prolong the return to activities of daily living postlanding. Further, altered locomotion and neuromuscular activation patterns following space flight may impair the ability of space travelers to ambulate during extraterrestrial activities, emergency egress, or normal activities upon return to Earth. Although lacking the orthostatic stress of upright exercise in normal gravity (1g), it is believed that treadmill exercise during microgravity protects exercise and metabolic capacities, simulates 1g loads to the musculoskeletal system, and stimulates neuromuscular patterns required for locomotion. It is currently employed as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning during long-duration missions aboard the station. The purpose of this study is to compare the acute metabolic and cardiovascular responses to, as well as the kinetic and kinematic aspects of, short-duration TVIS-M, TVIS-NM, and BD-1 treadmill exercise in relation to a standard laboratory treadmill exercise. Study findings will provide valuable information regarding ongoing use of treadmill exercise as a countermeasure to musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning associated with space flight and assist in the development of future treadmill exercise prescriptions.



  9. John Yasensky, GeoControl Systems, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, Hypervelocity Impact Evaluation of Metal Foam Core Sandwich Structures, TP-2008-214776, 3/1/2008, pp. 116, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: hypervelocity impact, metal foams, composite materials, sandwich structures, honeycomb structures, shielding

    Abstract: A series of hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF), building 267 (Houston, Texas) between January 2003 and December 2005 to test the HVI performance of metal foams, as compared to the metal honeycomb panels currently in service. The HITF testing was conducted at the NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Eric L. Christiansen, Ph.D., and NASA Lead for micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) protection requested these HVI tests as part of shielding research conducted for the JSC Center Director Discretionary Fund project. The structure tested is a metal foam sandwich structure; a metal foam core between two metal facesheets. Aluminum and titanium metals were tested for foam sandwich and honeycomb sandwich structures. Aluminum honeycomb core material is currently used in orbiter vehicle radiator panels and in other places in space structures. It has many desirable characteristics and performs well by many measures, especially when normalized by density. Aluminum honeycomb does not perform well in HVI testing. This is a concern, as honeycomb panels are often exposed to space environments and take on the role of MMOD shielding. Therefore, information on possible replacement core materials that perform adequately in all necessary functions of the material would be useful. In this report, HVI data are gathered for these two core materials in certain configurations and compared to gain an understanding of the metal foam HVI performance.



  10. John Goodman, United Space Alliance, Best Practices for Researching and Documenting Lessons Learned, CR-2008-214777, 3/1/2008, pp. 22, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Risk, forecasting, operations research, predictions, strategy

    Abstract: Identification, resolution, and avoidance of technical and programmatic issues are important for ensuring safe and successful space missions.1,2 Although the importance of applying lessons learned to reduce risk is frequently stressed, there is little material available to help technical and management personnel research and document lessons learned. Collecting, researching, identifying, and documenting lessons learned that will be useful to current and future management and engineering personnel is not always a straightforward task. This white paper presents lessons learned and best practices concerning the research and documentation of technical and organizational lessons learned. It is intended to enable organizations to initiate or improve lessons learned research and documentation efforts. The content of this white paper is based on four technical lessons learned projects conducted by the United Space Alliance (USA) Flight Design and Dynamics Department, in support of the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Design and Dynamics Division. Each project published a report, titled as follows: GPS Lessons Learned From the ISS, Space Shuttle and X-38 4; Lessons Learned From Seven Space Shuttle Missions 5; Space Shuttle Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Experience Report; and Navigation Technical History with Lessons Learned



  11. Mission Operations Directorate, International Space Station Human Behavior & Performance Competency Model Volume 1, TM-2008-214775Vol1, 4/1/2008, pp. 28, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Human behavior, human performance

    Abstract: This document defines Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies that are recommended to be included as requirements to participate in international long duration missions. They were developed in response to the Multilateral Crew Operations Panel (MMOP) request to develop HBP training requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). The competency model presented here was developed by the ITCB HBPT WG and forms the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers.



  12. Mission Operations Directorate, International Space Station Human Behavior & Performance Competency Model Volume 2, TM-2008-214775Vol2, 4/1/2008, pp. 84, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Human behavior, human performance

    Abstract: This document defines Human Behavior and Performance (HBP) competencies that are recommended to be included as requirements to participate in international long duration missions. They were developed in response to the Multilateral Crew Operations Panel (MMOP) request to develop HBP training requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). The competency model presented here was developed by the ITCB HBPT WG and forms the basis for determining the HBP training curriculum for long duration crewmembers.



  13. Orbital Debris Program Office: N. L. Johnson, E. Stansbery, D. O. Whitlock, K J. Abercromby, D. Shoots, History of on-orbit satellite fragmentations, 14th Edition, TM-2008-214779, 5/1/2008, pp. 504, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: Space debris, fragments, satellite breakup, satellite fragmentation

    Abstract: Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in June 1961 (which instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400%) the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970s and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980s served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Continued events in all orbits in later years make definition and historical accounting of those events crucial to future research. Large, manned space stations and the growing number of operational robotic satellites demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population.



  14. R. A. Scheuring, J. A. Jones, M. Gernhardt, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA, Optimal Total Pressure-Oxygen Concentration Levels for Future Spacecraft, Spacesuits, and Habitats, TP-2008-214775, 7/1/2008, pp. 32, Location unavailable.

    Keywords:

    Abstract: This paper describes proposed environmental atmospheres for future long-duration spacecraft, spacesuits, and lunar and Mars habitats. Several atmospheric design points for the Constellation missions have been developed by the Environmental Atmosphere Working Group, ranging from normoxic to moderately hypoxic while simultaneously hypobaric. These environments were analyzed to achieve a balance among the risk of decompression sickness, the overhead required to perform an exploration extravehicular activity (EVA), short- and long-term human performance at less than normoxic levels of partial pressure of oxygen, and the fire hazard. Atmospheres in future vehicles for exploration missions will likely be less than standard atmospheric pressure, with an ambient inspired ppO2 less than an Earth sea-level equivalent of 3.07 pounds per square inch, absolute, or 159 mmHg. A hypobaric and reduced-oxygen environment will be the integrated solution to safety, engineering, operational, and medical concerns that have as their goal routine and safe exploration of the lunar or martian surface. Constellation Program goals and proposed mission architecture emphasize EVA with exploration of planetary surfaces as the central driving operation. However, human physiology, materials, and equipment factors pose important limits that must be considered when choosing these atmospheric parameters.



  15. Kirk L. English*, James A. Loehr**, Staurt M. C. Lee**, Mitzi A. Laughlin**, R. Donald Hagan***, Reliability of Strength Testing Using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights, TP-2008-214782, 12/1/2008, pp. 24, *JES Tech, Houston, TX; **Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX; ***NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

    Keywords: resistance tolerances; muscular strength; muscular fatigue; muscles; deconditioning; muscular tonus; physical exercise; exercise physiology, locomotion; physical fitness

    Abstract: Significant muscle atrophy, change in muscle morphology, and reduction in strength have been found after short-duration space flights. After long-duration space flight, strength and muscle mass losses approach 30% in some lower body muscle groups despite in-flight exercise countermeasures. Reduced muscle strength might increase fatigue and injury risk during strenuous tasks. Bone also undergoes deleterious changes such as increased calcium turnover during, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) following, long-duration space flights, increasing the risk of fracture in crew members. The interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is currently employed as a countermeasure to maintain muscle strength, muscle mass, and BMD; but it is not as effective as ground-based free weight (FW) training for increasing strength and BMD in ambulatory subjects and does not provide high loads. Results from early station missions suggest that iRED exercise may not protect isokinetic muscle strength and BMD. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was designed to provide forces that mimic lifting FW in 1-g and will replace iRED on station. ARED incorporates three major improvements over iRED: greater maximal loading (275 kg peak load), improved eccentric:concentric ratio (eccentric load is approximately 90% of concentric load), and simulation of inertial forces produced during FW exercise.



  16. Sandra Wagner, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements, TM-2008-213722, 12/1/2008, pp. 30, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: lunar soil, planetary surfaces, dust contaminants, planetary systems

    Abstract: Apollo astronauts learned, first hand, how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when microgravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. The Advanced Integration Matrix Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identify knowledge gaps, and recommend scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and to design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.



  17. Marcos A. Jaramillo, MEI Technologies, Inc., NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058; Bonnie L. Angermiller, MEI Technologies, Inc.; Richard M. Morency, NASA; Sudhakar L. Rajulu, Ph.D., NASA, Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extravehicular Activity Suit Operations, TP-2008-214781, 11/1/2008, pp. 28, Location unavailable.

    Keywords: suits, space suits, extravehicular mobility units, extravehicular activity

    Abstract: The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in National Space Transportation System (NSTS) 07700 -- System Description and Design Data -- Extravehicular Activities -- arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility; and torso lean testing to be performed in the Precision Air Bearing Facility. NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crew member to be a net 45-degree backward lean. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700; and to provide recommendations to update this standard, if necessary.




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