Keywords: International Space Station, space environment simulation, manned Mars missions, long-duration space flight
Abstract: Preparation for future crewed missions to Mars will require utilization of space analogs for research (such as for feasibility and verification of monitoring technologies or countermeasures) and for training of flight crews and ground support personnel. Although several ground-based analogs mimic various aspects of space exploration missions, the influence of Earth’s ever-present surface gravity cannot be ignored. Until recently, lunar missions were expected to be a stepping-stone for Mars expeditions, but recent programmatic de-emphasis of lunar missions has encouraged consideration of piloted missions to Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) instead. It has been suggested that in-space simulations of Mars (and now NEA) missions be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). Some possibilities for, and space life sciences implications of, such an effort are described. A brainstorming session involving space life sciences subject matter experts associated with the NASA Human Research Program, the Johnson Space Center Space Life Sciences Directorate, and the Ames Research Center Exploration Technology Directorate was convened on September 25, 2009, to respond to two questions: how can the ISS be used to mimic Mars missions; and how can crew increment duration be increased to 9 to 12 months from the existing 6 months. Positions and recommendations are indicated.
Keywords: pressure vessels; propellant tank; pressure vessel design; shells (structural forms); rocket linings; lining processes; shielding
Abstract: Due to the extensive amount of detailed information that has been published on composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), this document has been written to serve as a primer for those who desire an elementary knowledge of COPVs and the factors affecting composite safety. In this application, the word "composite" simply refers to a matrix of continuous fibers contained within a resin and wrapped over a pressure barrier to form a vessel for gas or liquid containment. COPVs are currently used at NASA to contain high-pressure fluids in propulsion, science experiments, and life support applications. They have a significant weight advantage over all-metal vessels but require unique design, manufacturing, and test requirements. COPVs also involve a much more complex mechanical understanding due to the interplay between the composite overwrap and the inner liner. A metallic liner is typically used in a COPV as a fluid permeation barrier. The liner design concepts and requirements have been borrowed from all-metal vessels. However, application of metallic vessel design standards to a very thin liner is not straightforward. Different failure modes exist for COPVs than for all-metal vessels, and understanding of these failure modes is at a much more rudimentary level than for metal vessels.
Keywords: MARES, muscle atrophy, knee flexion, knee extension, long-duration, in-flight strength data
Abstract: International Space Station crew members perform preflight and post-flight testing to assess changes in muscle strength associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. Currently no reliable, standardized in-flight strength data exist. An understanding of the timeline of strength changes during long-duration space flight will facilitate improved exercise prescription and enhance countermeasures evaluation. The aims of this investigation are to: 1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of a proprietary dynamometer, and 2) determine its agreement with a standard, commercially available isokinetic dynamometer used for preflight and post-flight medical assessment testing. To this end, Six males and four females completed two sessions on a standard, commercially available isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) in a random, counterbalanced order. Peak torque values were set at at 60° and 180°. Intra-class correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90 to 0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° MARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to perform ground-based testing using NORM and in-flight testing with MARES.
Keywords: risk assessment, analogs, research, human performance, health
Abstract: Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) Research has sought to develop a process that will determine, as objectively as possible, which analogs are a “best fit” for addressing BHP Research gaps, thus reducing risk. Developers of the Analog Assessment Tool needed to consider, among other things, the importance of proposed environmental and psychosocial characteristics to BHP Research gaps, as well as the fidelity of those characteristics within the analog environment to space scenarios (i.e., Near-Earth Objects and Mars). It also was essential to consider the utility of each analog in terms of its practicality and cost of conducting research in those environments. Analogs with high fidelity to space flight are often intuitively considered ideal platforms for conducting research to inform future space flight missions. Simply considering the fidelity of an analog, however, may not be enough to ensure that the analog serves as the appropriate platform through which to address a research gap. The Analog Assessment Tool provides a methodology to determine not only the fidelity of analog characteristics to characteristics of a space flight mission, but also how relevant those characteristics are for specific research gaps within a research element (e.g., BHP Research Element).
Keywords: biomedical data, monitors, astronaut performance
Abstract: Current vital sign monitoring of astronauts utilizes cumbersome equipment that requires contact with the patient’s body to function properly. These systems require extended time to shave the subject, apply electrodes, and check the signals of the system before operation. It also requires that the astronaut understand the application procedures of the electrodes and data capture process for the system to yield usable data. This paper investigates potential non-contact vital sign monitoring mechanisms that might mitigate some of the current complexities. Non-contact vital sign monitoring includes several advantages over traditional methods because no subject participation is required to properly don the equipment, astronaut comfort is increased, and more accurate vital sign data are captured. This paper reviews the most current literature regarding non-contact vital sign monitoring, including Ultra-Wideband Radar, Non-Contact Photoplethysmography, and Infrared Video as viable options for possible incorporation on future space exploration missions. .
Keywords: astronaut performance, environments, isolation
Abstract: The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program, including the risk of behavioral health and psychiatric conditions. BHP supports and conducts research to mitigate the behavioral medicine risk for exploration missions and, in some instances, current flight medical operations.BHP has identified research gaps within the behavioral medicine risk. Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE), as defined in the BHP Integrated Research Plan, outlines a research strategy that primarily incorporates identifying the most malleable psychosocial characteristics in isolated, confined, and extreme environments to develop and/or strengthen these characteristics to serve as countermeasures of possible decrements in BHP success. The first step in addressing this gap is to conduct an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the most malleable psychosocial characteristics that predict success when considering the context of an ICE. This report addresses two specific aims: identify psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICEs; and identify those characteristics that are most malleable.
Keywords: decompression sickness; extravehicular activity; astronaut locomotion; denitrogenation; hypobaric atmospheres; high pressure; gas analysis; atmospheric pressure
Abstract: Among advances made during the 30-year operational life of the shuttle were those in our understanding of decompression sickness. New denitrogenation procedures were validated with research subjects in altitude chambers. Validation continued during hundreds of spacewalks that were safely performed from the shuttle and Russian Mir space station, and are performed from the International Space Station. Hypobaric exposure combined with microgravity achieved through space flight afforded a unique opportunity to understand more about decompression sickness. Lessons learned included: (1) greater understanding of limits to depressurization to minimize evolved gas and symptoms of decompression sickness, (2) methods to accelerate denitrogenation during oxygen prebreathing, (3) insights into tissue micronuclei formation and stability, (4) differences between research and operational settings, and (5) translation of research results into effective operational prebreathe protocols appropriate for a spacesuit operating at a pressure only 4.3 psia (222 mmHg) above the space vacuum. A spacewalk is the culmination of many hours of training under both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions, training that must be managed to avoid decompression sickness. Flexibility in selecting atmospheric gas composition and pressure in future exploration vehicles and habitats plus advances in spacesuit design will enable humans to exploit space without interference from decompression sickness
Keywords: stress (psychology); diagnosis (psychology); disorders (psychology); psychological factors; psychological tests; Antarctic regions; health; astronaut performance
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological effects of wintering-over in Antarctica. We considered the feasibility of a meta-analysis for combining the results of relevant empirical studies in this area. As an ICE [isolated, confined, and extreme] environment, Antarctica provides invaluable opportunities to experience stressors more common to space flight than to the average person’s everyday life. The increased prevalence of psychological symptoms, syndromes, and psychiatric disorders, as well as positive salutogenic effects, were expected to be associated with various demographic and environmental factors. The great disparity between experimental design, statistical methodology, and reporting details led to the conclusion that a traditional meta-analysis was not feasible. Possible forward work considerations include a systematic literature review, a reanalysis of the data (for certain individual measures) using modern longitudinal techniques, an alternative meta-analysis method (for certain individual measures), and/or a qualitative literature review. NASA’s BHP [behavioral, health, and performance] Element is planning to conduct the systematic review in fiscal year 2010.
Keywords: extravehicular activity; astronaut locomotion; weightlessness; Apollo extension system; intravehicular activity; cislunar space; aerospace environments; space suits
Abstract: It is important to understand how well the astronauts are able to function while performing exploration responsibilities to improve the safety and efficiency of future lunar sortie missions. A wealth of knowledge may be gained by searching the video archives from the extravehicular activities (EVAs) performed during the Apollo missions. Metabolic and movement characteristics from these missions can be assessed to determine the effort required by astronauts when performing extravehicular tasks. Analysis results indicated that the Apollo astronauts fell 3% of their EVA time; walked, loped, or ran at speeds ranging from 1.3 to 5.5 kph (0.8 to 3.4 mph); and reached metabolic rates of more than 2 215 617.39 J/hour (2100 BTU/hour). These values can be used when considering future lunar sorties as well as to verify simulation studies conducted on the ground. These data also provide a quantitative estimate of the number of stumbles and falls the astronauts experienced during Apollo EVAs. Likely factors influencing stability, speed, and energy expenditure include environmental characteristics, suit characteristics, crew training, and overall crew health. Future research may be performed to further investigate these factors to properly prepare for space exploration beyond the International Space Station.
Keywords: Constellation Program; learning; management planning; NASA programs; research and development; schedules; production planning; risk acceptability; decision, management
Abstract: This document (Volume I) provides an executive summary of lessons learned from the Constellation Program. A companion document (Volume II) provides more detailed analyses for those seeking further insight and information. In this volume, Section 1.0 introduces the approach in preparing and organizing the content to enable rapid assimilation of the lessons. Section 2.0 describes the contextual framework in which the Constellation Program was formulated and functioned, which is necessary to understand most of the lessons. While context of a former program may seem irrelevant in the heady days of new program formulation, some time should be taken to understand context. Many of the lessons would be different in a different context, so the reader should reflect on similarities and differences in his or her current circumstances. Section 3.0 summarizes key findings, at the program level, developed from the significant lessons learned that appear in Section 4.0. Readers can use the key findings in Section 3.0 to peruse for particular topics, and will find more supporting detail and analyses in a topical format in Section 4.0. Appendix A contains a white paper describing the Constellation Program formulation that may be of use to readers wanting more context or background information
Keywords: astronaut performance, biometrics, cognition, monitoring
Abstract: This document contains a literature review suggesting that research on industrial performance monitoring has limited value in assessing, understanding, and predicting team functioning in the context of space flight missions. The review indicates that a more relevant area of research explores the effectiveness of teams and how team effectiveness may be predicted through the elicitation of individual and team mental models. The “mental models” referred to in this literature typically reflect a shared operational understanding of a mission setting such as the cockpit controls and navigational indicators on a flight deck. In principle, however, mental models also exist pertaining to the status of interpersonal relations on a team, collective beliefs about leadership, success in coordination, and other aspects of team behavior and cognition. Conclusions from this work suggest that unobtrusive monitoring of space flight personnel is likely to be a valuable future tool for assessing team functioning, but that several research gaps must be filled before prototype systems can be developed for this purpose.
Keywords: space suits; life support systems; pressure vessel design; atmospheric models; environment simulation; atmospheric entry simulation; underwater tests
Abstract: The Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) offers numerous health and safety advantages that accrue from having a pressurized safe haven/radiation shelter in close proximity to the crew at all times during exploration operations. It also combines a comfortable shirtsleeve, sensor-augmented environment for gross translations and geological/mapping observations with the ability to rapidly place suited astronauts outside of the vehicle using suitports to take full advantage of the unique human talents of perception, judgment, and dexterity. The concept is being developed by designing, prototyping, and testing in close coordination with developing other exploration systems including the extravehicular activity (EVA) suit. Different test objectives necessitate different test sites, and objectives of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 14 test required a simulated reduced-gravity environment. The ability to simulate microgravity and reduced gravity for extended durations during EVA tasks means that NEEMO missions represent a cost-effective opportunity to understand the operation and interaction of hardware and humans in these environments. The success of future exploration missions depends on the ability to perform EVA tasks efficiently and safely, whether those tasks represent a nominal mode of operation or a contingency capability; all systems must be designed with EVA accessibility and operability as important considerations.
Keywords: cost analysis; scheduling; risk assumptions; strategy; reliability; cooperation; coordination; methodology; management methods
Abstract: NASA, through NPD 1000.5, NPR 7120.5D, and NID 7120.81, is in the midst of implementing a Joint Confidence Level (JCL) requirement for all projects and programs that extends the previous cost estimate confidence requirement by incorporating schedule confidence as well. At first glance, the JCL target level seemed reasonable in light of project management’s general desire to closely monitor both cost and schedule. In practice, however, despite the many merits of this requirement, it introduces unintended consequences that establish potentially insurmountable challenges to most projects and programs. Yet these challenges are outweighed by the fact that the most significant contribution of JCL is its ability to provide information to program managers about the comprehensive impact of risks to schedule and cost, focusing on key risks that most greatly affect the plan. Indeed JCL has proven itself a valuable management tool that merges the stovepipes of risk, cost, and schedule, capturing the dynamics of the interrelationships. This paper supports the JCL methodology, along with continued agency-wide implementation, because this methodology is fundamental to the success of programs and projects. Analytical cooperation and traceability, understandable methodology, identifiable input sources, and project-informed, analytically scrubbed results are all hallmarks of successful JCLs in action.
Keywords: radiation effects; biological effects; radiation exposure; radiation hazards; radiation injuries; radiation protection; radiation sickness; radiation tolerance; human tolerance
Abstract: Uncertainties in estimating health risks from galactic cosmic rays greatly limit space mission lengths and potential risk mitigation evaluations. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death and protects against uncertainties using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. Revisions to this model for lifetime cancer risks from space radiation and new estimates of model uncertainties are described here. We review models of space environments and transport code predictions of organ exposures, and characterize uncertainties in these descriptions. We summarize recent analysis of low linear energy transfer radio-epidemiology data, including revision to Japanese A-bomb survivor dosimetry, longer follow-up of exposed cohorts, and reassessments of dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors. We compare these projections and uncertainties with earlier estimates. Current understanding of radiation quality effects and recent data on factors of relative biological effectiveness and particle track structure are reviewed. Recent radiobiology experiment results provide new information on solid cancer and leukemia risks from heavy ions. We also consider deviations from the paradigm of linearity at low doses of heavy ions motivated by non-targeted effects models. New findings and knowledge are used to revise the NASA risk projection model for space radiation cancer risks.
Keywords: trajectories; trajectory analysis; astrodynamics; trajectory control; trajectory optimization; flight mechanics; trajectory planning; flight simulation
Abstract: Interest in aerocapture, a maneuver in which a spacecraft dives into the atmosphere of a planet for nearly propellantless capture into planetary orbit, has grown steadily in recent years. One key element required to execute this maneuver is an appropriate guidance algorithm for the atmospheric phase of flight. A popular algorithm choice has been the numerical-predictor corrector (NPC), which typically iterates on a time-invariant bank angle to target apoapsis of the desired final orbit. This paper introduces the idea of using the NPC to select the bank angle that instead minimizes the sum of periapsis-raise ?V and apoapsis-cleanup ?V, and demonstrates the surprising finding that the two approaches are equivalent under a certain analytic condition. This condition is derived and then applied to correctly predict a scenario in which apoapsis targeting produces a suboptimal ?V. This scenario is simulated, and the ?V minimization algorithm is shown to reduce the required ?V by 23%. Monte Carlo simulations confirm both the scenarios of equivalence and non-equivalence, and an automatable procedure is outlined that a user can execute prior to simulating or flying a trajectory to determine whether apoapsis targeting is ?V optimal or whether a ?V minimization algorithm is required.
Keywords: Space Shuttle payloads, experiments, education, Earth sciences, space sciences, microgravity, space biology, astronaut performance, engineering
Abstract: This document was compiled to provide selected highlights of the science and engineering payloads, experiments, engineering and scientific tests, and other technical activities that were carried out during the Space Shuttle era. It is very important to note that this TM highlights selected payloads and experiments to offer glimpses into the intensive scientific and engineering initiatives throughout the Space Shuttle Program. While this document is quite detailed and highly informative, it is neither comprehensive nor encyclopedic. The intention is to give readers an overview of the shuttle science and engineering payloads. In addition, selected personal observations were provided by a handful of astronauts. The data on the Space Shuttle flights highlighted in this document are in chronological order by date(s) of the mission. The summaries are high-level descriptions of the experiments/engineering tests, etc.
Keywords: lunar exploration; space transportation; cargo transportation; robotics; teleoperators
Abstract: The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration that has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA into an international effort with much higher-fidelity descriptions of systems/operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration. The ISECG Reference Architecture is neither a lunar base nor a series of Apollo-style missions. It employs a flexible approach to lunar exploration that can accommodate changes in technologies, international priorities, and programmatic constraints as necessary. It relies on NASA Constellation architecture for crew and large-cargo transportation but is robust to variations (increases or decreases) in landed mass. It shows flexibility, and redundancy will be improved by using small cargo launch vehicles to deliver scientific payloads and logistics (eg, laboratory/excavation equipment and crew support items). The Architecture is composed of phases that will deploy a range of international human-rated and robotic technologies over time on the lunar surface. And, it will provide continuous robotic and human exploration activity in multiple locations on the Moon: the robotic precursor phase, polar exploration and system validation phase, polar relocation phase, and nonpolar relocation and long-duration phase.
Keywords: vision, intracranial pressure, long duration spaceflight, physiological effects
Abstract: NASA Johnson Space Center Space Life Sciences Directorate hosted the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure Summit on February 8-10, 2011, in Houston, Texas. There were approximately 75 attendees representing expertise in disciplines including anesthesia, cardiology, engineering, epidemiology, medical physics, neurology, ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, optometry, radiology, space physiology, space medicine, ultrasonography, and vascular physiology. Attendees included NASA civil servants, NASA contractors, non-NASA clinicians, and professors from various academic institutions. Attendees were further divided into co-chairs, panelists, and non-panelists to identify the co-chairs and panelists as the group responsible for forming recommendations and producing this report. Documented cases of visual impairment and increased intracranial pressure in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight on the International Space Station were discussed, as were immediate clinical diagnosis and treatment options, clinical tools that required additional research and development, possible underlying space flight physiology effects requiring investigation, and potential anatomical or genetic characteristics that may confer susceptibility or risk for developing the visual impairment and/or increased intracranial pressure after exposure to microgravity. The discussion and summit focused on seven documented cases, but did consider the possibility that all long-duration astronauts experience the underlying physiological effect with only a subset manifesting symptoms and degraded function (i.e., visual impairment).
Keywords: weightlessness; parabolic flight; zero gravity; physical exercise; plant growth; astronaut performance; astronaut health
Abstract: This document represents a summary of medical and scientific evaluations conducted aboard NASA’s sponsored aircraft from June 2010 to May 2011. Included is a general overview of investigations manifested and coordinated by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division. A collection of brief reports that describe tests conducted aboard the NASA sponsored aircraft follows the overview. Principal investigators and test engineers contributed significantly to the content of the report describing their particular experiment or hardware evaluation. Although this document follows general guidelines, each report format may vary to accommodate differences in experiment design and procedures. This document concludes with an appendix that provides background information concerning NASA’s Reduced Gravity Program.
Keywords: spacecraft, launch vehicles, flight tests, safety factors, risk, risk assesssment, Constellation Program
Abstract: NASA’s Constellation Program has made the most progress in a generation toward building an integrated human-rated spacecraft and launch vehicle. During that development, it became clear that NASA’s human-rating requirements lacked the specificity necessary to defend a program plan, particularly human-rating test flight plans, from severe budget challenges. This paper addresses the progress Constellation achieved, and problems encountered, in clarifying and defending a human-rating certification plan, and discusses key considerations for those who find themselves in similar straits with future human-rated spacecraft and vehicles. We assert, and support with space flight data, that NASA’s current human-rating requirements do not adequately address "unknown-unknowns," or the unexpected things the hardware can reveal to the designer during test.
Keywords: Constellation Program; learning; management planning; NASA programs; research and development; schedules; production planning; risk acceptability; decision, management
Abstract: This document (Volume 2)—the companion to SP-2011-6127-VOL-1, which afforded an executive summary of lessons learned from the Constellation Program—provides further detailed analyses for those seeking additional insight and information. In this volume, Section 1.0 introduces the approach taken in preparing and organizing the content to enable rapid topical location and assimilation of lessons. Section 2.0 expands on the brief contextual description provided in Volume 1. While context of a former program may seem irrelevant in the heady days in which new programs are being formulated, some time should be taken to understand context. Many of the lessons would be different in a different context, so the reader should reflect on similarities and differences in his or her current circumstances. Section 3.0 summarizes key findings, which also appear in Volume 1, at the program level, and and the topical arrangement of lessons learned within this volume. Not only can readers use the key findings in Section 3.0 to search for particular topics, they will also find more supporting detail in Section 4.0, provided in a topical format and arranged according to traditional NASA program disciplines. Appendix A and Appendix B provide insight from the project view of lessons learned.
Keywords: training, long duration space flight, aerospace environments, simulation
Abstract: The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program. BHP supports and conducts research to help characterize and mitigate risks for long-duration missions and, in some instances, current flight medical operations. Although crew members and the ground crew currently receive training, additional training capabilities will be required for future exploration missions to Mars. These missions will have substantially different requirements for success than any previous NASA mission, so training will have to be revised accordingly. To ensure crew safety and accomplish mission work tasks, effective application of the skills and knowledge learned in training is critical. There is a need to understand recent developments in the team training literature as well as current team training strategies to help direct future training efforts in preparation for long-duration missions.This report provides the results of a literature review on team training, operational assessment, evaluation, and recommendations for the current NASA team training strategies and future research that are relevant to the Team Risk (specifically focusing on monitoring task performance, psychosocial performance, and teamwork).The purpose of this literature review was to identify research on current team training strategies, including general models of training but also specific strategies for team training in isolated, confined, and extreme environments.
Keywords: training, long duration space flight, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, environments
Abstract: This report summarizes findings and presents recommendations based on a year-long research effort on the benefits of virtual worlds (VWs) for astronaut and ground crew training for long-duration space flight. The components of this research included a literature review on existing applications of VW technology to space flight, an operational assessment on the most promising aspects of using VWs for training for long-duration space flight, interviews with a panel of six NASA experts on the use of VWs, and participation in a 3-day Behavioral Health Program Research Element workshop. Based on the above components, this report summarizes the main findings of each of these components to describe current developments in VWs and use of virtual technologies as applied to the context of long-duration space flight. Furthermore, as a result of our research, we also assessed current training protocols at NASA and found exciting opportunities for augmenting existing practices for long-duration space flight. Lastly, based on our assessment, we recommend promising directions of future research for NASA long-duration space flight with an eye to implementation and cost effectiveness. Our findings are that VWs are a promising technology for learning, preparing, and supporting long-duration space flight.
Keywords: long duration space flight; human performance, astronaut performance; astronaut training; communicating
Abstract: The Behavioral Health & Performance Element (BHP) is one of six elements within the Human Research Program, and is tasked with designing, implementing, and managing research tasks that will develop tools, technologies, countermeasures, and other mitigation strategies to help support the crew on long-duration missions. Investigating the impact of culture within the astronaut population is a timely issue given that problems related to human interaction (including those that are culturally based) are likely to increase in prevalence as we move toward extreme long-duration space flight. Although one can cope and even ignore interpersonal conflicts and communication difficulties in the context of a 1- or 2-week mission, these factors can become a chronic stressor on long-duration missions given the heightened isolation and greater amount of downtime that crew members will experience. Further, it is likely that successfully completing a long-duration mission will require the cooperation of multiple nations and individuals with a variety of cultural backgrounds. Given these projections, the main objectives of this project were to: (a) identify, document, and describe any existing issues in communication occurring in cross-cultural teams; and (b) examine whether cultural differences in behavioral outcomes exist.
Keywords: space debris; geosynchronous orbits; Earth orbital environments; brightness; inclination, orbits; targets; range, orbital position estimation; astronomical telescopes
Abstract: Orbital debris is a concern to all nations that use satellites or launch space vehicles. The debris field scattered near Earth’s geosynchronous orbit (GEO) poses a threat to anything residing in or passing through the region. To mitigate risk and minimize the debris field’s expansion, the environment must be understood. NASA uses the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST), the University of Michigan’s 0.61-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, to help characterize the GEO debris environment. This report describes the collection and analysis of data collected during 36 nights in CY 2007, 43 nights in CY 2008, and 43 nights in CY 2009. For all 3 years, the average number of detections each night was 26. The percentage of this number that represented the UCT population ranged from 34% to 18% depending on the observing strategy and the field center location. The data of interest are brightness distributions, inclination, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Estimates on the error for derived quantities of inclination, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion can be made from derived and known quantities of correlated objects.
Keywords: long duration spaceflight;environments; habitability; stress (psychology)
Abstract: This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18–21, 2011, in Houston, TX, at the Center for Advanced Space Studies, Universities Space Research Association. The workshop, convened by NASA, examined factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long-duration space missions. While confinement studies and analogs have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining adequacy of the volume for future long-duration exploration missions is more complicated. An improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge adequacy of long-duration habitat designs. A multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines, and design professionals identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long-duration exploration mission. The stressors were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.
Keywords: astronaut performance; astronaut training; human performance, personality tests; psychological factors
Abstract: This report presents an analysis of an existing astronaut psychological trait dataset and the relationship between those data and publicly available metrics of astronaut career performance. The overall aim of this analysis is to examine the relationship between individual factors (i.e., predictors), identifiable at the time of selection, and career activity (i.e., performance) as an astronaut. Sections include: outcome variables (quantifying career performance); analysis of the data (the personality data set, analytic strategy, and demographic factors and astronaut career performance); trait predictors and performance; a summary of the analysis; and suggestions for next steps.This project is funded by a contractual agreement between the author and the Behavioral Health and Performance Research Element at EASI/Wyle and NASA. This work was undertaken for the purpose of informing future selection strategies for astronaut applicants, and to create a better understanding of the relationship between individual psychological characteristics and the job of being an astronaut.
Keywords: aerospace enivironments, life support systems, aerospace medicine, robotics, telerobotics, space exploration, extravehicular activity, propulsion, flammability
Abstract: The Biennial Research and Technology Development Report is a compilation of advances in research and technology accomplished by Johnson Space Center (JSC) engineers and scientists. The articles contained within this report further JSC's and NASA's historical tradition of working with colleges and universities, industry, federal laboratories, and other research and technology development organizations for the betterment of humankind. This report is organized into10 broad categories: Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems, and Space Medicine; Human Exploration Systems, Technologies for Extravehicular Activity and Harsh Environments; Environmental Technologies; Materials, Structures, Development and Testing; Space Power, Energy Storage, and Propulsion; Robotics, Tele-Robotics, Autonomous Systems, and Software; Exploration, Planetary Science, and Sensor Systems; Flammability and Explosive Technologies; Space and Ground Operations; and Education and Outreach.
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