Keywords: landing; abort; launch vehicles; space capsules; injuries; risk assessment
Abstract: A novel approach has been developed to define acceptable risk guidelines for human spaceflight injuries occurring during dynamic phases of flight (launch, abort, and landing). These risk guidelines is a driver for both vehicle and mission design, which in turn drive cost and schedule. The approach outlined in this document was based on three inputs. First, an Operationally Relevant Injury Scale was developed to categorize injuries within the framework of the spaceflight environment. Second, a systematic consideration of injury risk in other analogous programs and historic space programs was gathered for a pragmatic examination of realistic injury probabilities. Third, estimated Orion landing types and probabilities were determined along with the type of tasks crewmembers would be expected to perform in each situation to ensure mission success. These landing scenarios helped define the range of injuries expected for capsule-based spaceflight. A panel of experts convened to define the highest level of injury allowable that still achieved mission success. Once this level was defined, the panel began buying-down the risk with other considerations. Results led to a Definition of Acceptable Risk for space-capsule landings that may be used to help set new standards to protect crews during dynamic phases of flight.
Keywords: long duration missions; habitability; space vehicles; spacecraft design
Abstract: The Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements of NASA’s Human Research Program hosted the 2012 Habitable Volume Workshop, which focused on spacecraft/habitat volume design and assessment for long-duration missions. The workshop produced concrete products to aid in design and assessment of habitable volume in space vehicles and habitats, and sought to identify research and technology development gaps and provide recommendations for forward work. Workshop products included Process Flow, Task List, and Metrics and Tools Lists. Process Flow identifies three major elements in human systems engineering and habitability design and establishes how they feed one another in an iterative work flow for assessing habitable volume. Task List provides a minimal set of long-duration mission tasks that are volume-driving, and provides design constraints as well as volume and layout characteristics to inform the design process. Metrics and Tools Lists capture design and behavioral metrics as well as example methods and tools used to measure them. Volume-impacting countermeasures for optimizing behavioral health and performance were identified. The workshop and its products serve as a critical step on the path to address HRP risks related to reduced safety and efficiency due to an inadequately designed vehicle or habitat.
Keywords: life sciences; space biology; plant growth; microbiology; bioregenerative life support;
Abstract: NASA Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC’s) life sciences research team began assembling in the mid 1980s to support life science payloads for the Space Shuttle Program. Biological research laboratories were constructed at Hangar L. on the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station to support visiting investigators in preparing flight experiment payloads. Dr. Bill Knott pursued the idea of co-utilizing these facility investments to support other research needs; in particular, the use of the plant growth chambers and microbiological laboratories. This led to a synergy between space biology research and the Closed Ecological Life Support System Program. To support additional testing, this program sponsored construction of the Biomass Production Chamber at Hangar L. This work continued until 2003, when the laboratories were moved to Space Life Sciences Laboratory at KSC. Since then, bioregenerative life support testing has continued, along with payload development and support activities. Throughout this period, KSC life science research staff had opportunities to collaborate with external investigators, apply for supplemental grants for research, and continue to conduct program-directed research in bioregenerative life support. This document provides a listing of published papers, proceedings, book chapters, technical memoranda, and theses/dissertations related to bioregenerative life support and space biology work at KSC.
Keywords: long duration space flight; aerospace medicine, telemedicine; astronaut training; astronaut performance
Abstract: As NASA and its international partner agencies anticipate eventual exploration missions of longer duration, there is a need to plan for the medical capabilities necessary to maximize crew health and provide the best likelihood of mission success. Missions to a near-Earth asteroid, a return to the moon, or even a mission to Mars will demand unprecedented medical capabilities, particularly relating to the training of the crew medical officers. The Exploration Medical Capability element within NASA’s Human Research Program defines a series of “gaps” in its attempts to address the questions about medical preparation for space flight beyond low Earth orbit. These gaps are shortcomings in knowledge, training, or technology that require resolution before an exploration mission can be undertaken. The Exploration Medical Capability element maintains current information about measures to close these gaps while developing plans for further investigation and research. Current crew medical officer training methods, and potential alternative training methods were identified to determine the optimal methods of medical training for an exploration medical crew and their ground support team, the historical context of medical operations.
Keywords: risk assessment; injuries; launch; abort; space capsules; restraint systems
Abstract: NASA is developing the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle also known as Orion, as well as working with commercial partners in developing new spacecraft for NASA’s use. Because each has unique dynamic loading, and those loads are different than current vehicles in the automotive, commercial aviation, and military industries, new methods are needed to assess crew injury risk. In addition, NASA’s injury risk posture is different than most other vehicles. Currently, NASA requirements for new vehicles are based on the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion and Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device limits. Because of the limitations to this approach, new methods are desired to mitigate the risk of injury to the crew. After a careful review of the available injury assessment methods [Evidence Book], the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) was chosen as a candidate for further investigation. The testing outlined in this report was conducted to assess the THOR response in various orientations and dynamics for its applicability to the NASA environment. In addition, these data were collected to provide validation data for concurrent development of a Finite Element model of the THOR in cooperation with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Keywords: orbital debris; space debris; debris environment; debris flux; engineering model; spacecraft safety; impact flux; OD Program Office; ORDEM
Abstract: The ORDEM 3.0 model is appropriate for engineering solutions requiring knowledge and estimates of the orbital debris environment. It can also be used as a benchmark for ground-based debris measurements and observations. With significant improvements over its predecessor, ORDEM 3.0 includes uncertainties in the flux estimates and material density classes. It has also been extended to describe the orbital debris environment from low Earth orbit past geosynchronous orbit. A large set of observational data (both in-situ and ground-based) reflect the current debris environment. Analytical techniques are employed to determine the orbit populations used to calculate population fluxes and their uncertainties. The model output lists fluxes of debris in half-decade size bins by distinct material characteristics (i.e., intact objects, high-, medium-, or low-material density objects, and NaK droplets) either by direction and velocity for an encompassing ‘igloo’ (for spacecraft) or by range bins (for a sensor beam on the Earth’s surface), depending on the user’s chosen operational mode. The program graphical user interface, executable data files, and an ORDEM 3.0 User’s Guide are included. ORDEM 3.0 has been subjected to extensive verification and validation. Currently, ORDEM 3.0 runs on Windows XP or more recent PC operating systems.
Keywords: Columbia (orbiter), accident investigation, lessons learned, spacecraft breakup, reentry, forensic sciences, aerospace medicine, search and recovery, hypervelocity
Abstract: Loss of Signal, presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will result in enhanced crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process—the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goal of this book is to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews.
Keywords: Antarctic regions; habitability; human behavior; human factors engineering; logistics; meteorites; mission planning; simulation
Abstract: The Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) is an annual expedition to the southern continent to collect meteorites. ANSMET participants spend six weeks in the extreme cold of the polar plateau, living in primitive field camps and searching for meteorites on foot and with snowmobiles. Bad weather may confine them to their tents for days at a time. ANSMET resembles a space mission in terms of its remoteness, isolation, mission duration, crew stressors, limited resupply, major activities, circadian disturbances, supporting vehicles, small living quarters, allocation of crew time, environmental and systems-related hazards, restricted outside communication, and crew involvement in public outreach. ANSMET provides valuable insights about the future human exploration of deep space at a tiny fraction of the cost of a real mission. For example, ANSMET participants manage their own inventories, tasking, and mission priorities without a control center, setting a precedent for autonomous crews far from Earth. Installations in Antarctica devote about half of their area to logistics, a much greater fraction than on spacecraft, where limited stowage space impedes work. Unlike space crews, ANSMET group members enjoy plenty of good food, choice of personal equipment, and leader-selected teammates to help them stay cooperative and happy despite hardship.
Keywords: Antares rocket vehicle, commercial spacecraft, government-industry relations, space commercialization, private sector, space station resupply, COTS, CRS, Dragon capsule
Abstract: From 2006 to 2013, the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program administered by the Commercial Crew & Cargo Program Office (C3PO) at the Johnson Space Center endeavored to stimulate U.S. commercial space transportation capabilities by pursuing a new way of doing business with industry. C3PO collaborated with a team of attorneys, procurement specialists, and even a venture capitalist to formulate and implement a new form of funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) based on the Agency’s “Other Transaction” Authority. In August 2006, NASA selected SpaceX and Rocketplane Kistler as its first COTS partners. However, NASA terminated the agreement with Rocketplane Kistler due to the company’s funding issues, and in February 2008 the Agency selected Orbital Sciences Corporation as its new industry partner. NASA worked with SpaceX and Orbital to meet the financial, programmatic, and technical milestones of their funded SAAs—milestones that would culminate in the development of new, commercially-owned transportation services to the International Space Station. The COTS program helped to realize the vision of cost-effective, U.S. space transportation capabilities and a successful partnership with industry.
Keywords: Haystack radar, HAX, Orbital Debris, Space Debris, Radar Cross Section, ODPO, NASA Size Estimation Model, NaK, on-orbit breakups
Abstract: This report summarizes methods of orbital debris radar data collection, reduction and analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO), with data gathered from the Haystack and the Haystack Auxiliary (HAX) radars. Both radars are operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, and have been collecting orbital debris data for the ODPO since 1990. They operate in a stare mode designed to statistically sample objects in low Earth orbit that are smaller than those typically tracked and cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Seven years of observations, beginning in fiscal year 2006, were processed and analyzed to obtain this report’s results. Three major advances in orbital debris radar data reduction and analysis represented in the report are (1) correlation of historical power loss with respect to radar sensitivity variation, (2) establishment of limits to size variation estimates caused by sensitivity variation from year to year, and (3) an automated data quality classification process. Results are presented in terms familiar to both radar and orbital debris analysts.
Keywords: crew procedures (inflight); flight operations; life sciences; human factors engineering; human engineering; habitability; environmental monitoring; extravehicular activity
Abstract: This handbook, a revision of SP-2010-3407, provides further guidance for crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors design of all NASA human space flight programs and projects. Two primary uses for the handbook are to help requirement writers prepare contractual program-specific human interface requirements -- users include program managers and system requirement writers; and help designers develop designs and operations for human interfaces in spacecraft -- users include human factors practitioners, engineers and designers, crews and mission/flight controllers, and training and operations developers. The handbook is a resource for NASA Space Flight Human Systems Standard (SFHSS), NASA-STD-3001 -- a two-volume set of NASA Agency-level standards, established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, that defines levels of acceptable risks to crew health and performance resulting from space flight. The handbook is a resource for implementing requirements in the SFHSS, providing data and guidance necessary to derive and implement program-specific requirements compliant with SFHSS. The handbook addresses all crew operations inside and outside the spacecraft in space and on lunar and planetary surfaces, including design guidelines for crew interface with workstations, architecture, habitation facilities, and extravehicular activity systems; information describing crew capabilities and limitations; and environmental support parameters.
Keywords: space radiation; radiation shielding; radiation protection; magnetic shielding; magnet coils; thermal radiation; high temperature superconductors; long duration space flight
Abstract: Protecting humans from space radiation is a major hurdle for human exploration of the solar system and beyond. Large magnetic fields surrounding a spaceship would deflect charged particles away from the habitat region and reduce the radiation dose to acceptable limits, as on Earth. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of current state-of-the-art high temperature superconductor magnets as a means to protect crew from space radiation exposure on long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The study will look at architecture concepts to deflect high energy Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Proton Events. Mass, power, and shielding efficiency will be considered and compared with current passive shielding capabilities. This report will walk the reader through several designs considered over the 1-year study and discuss the multiple parameters that should be evaluated for magnetic shielding. The study team eventually down-selects to a scalable lightweight solenoid architecture that is launchable and then deployable using magnetic pressure to expand large-diameter coils. Benefitting from the low-temperature and high-vacuum environment of deep space, existing high-temperature superconductors make such radiation shields realistic, near-term technical developments.
Keywords: contamination; samples; gloveboxes; clean rooms; Lunar Receiving Laboratory; organic compounds; sample return missions; space flight
Abstract: Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets will require curating astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. 21st century sample return missions will focus on strict protocols for reducing organic contamination that have not been seen since the Apollo manned lunar landing program. To properly curate these materials, the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office under the Astromaterial Research and Exploration Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center houses and protects all extraterrestrial materials brought back to Earth that are controlled by the United States government. During fiscal year 2012, we conducted a year-long project to compile historical documentation and laboratory tests involving organic investigations at these facilities. In addition, we developed a plan to determine the current state of organic cleanliness in curation laboratories housing astromaterials. This was accomplished by focusing on current procedures and protocols for cleaning, sample handling, and storage. While the intention of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the current state of organic cleanliness in JSC curation laboratories, it also provides a baseline for determining whether our cleaning procedures and sample handling protocols need to be adapted and/or augmented to meet the new requirements for future human spaceflight and robotic sample return missions.
Keywords: deep space; radiation; computation; situational awareness; computer graphics; International Space Station;
Abstract: Large round-trip communications latency for deep space missions will require more onboard computational capabilities to enable the space vehicle to undertake many tasks that have traditionally been ground-based, mission control responsibilities. As a result, visual display graphics will be required to provide simpler vehicle situational awareness through graphical representations, as well as provide capabilities never before done in a space mission, such as augmented reality for in-flight maintenance or Telepresence activities. These capabilities will require graphics processors and associated support electronic components for high computational graphics processing. A preliminary test was performed on five commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) graphics cards in an effort to understand the performance of commercial graphics card electronics operating in the expected radiation environment. This paper discusses the preliminary evaluation test results of five COTS graphics processing cards tested to the International Space Station low Earth orbit radiation environment. Three of the five graphics cards were tested to a total dose of 6000 rads (Si). The test articles, test configuration, preliminary results, and recommendations are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: artificial gravity; long duration space flight; centrifugal force;countermeasures; gravitational force; physiological effects; physiological factors; astronaut performance
Abstract: As space agencies plan the next generation of human space exploration missions to destinations beyond the Earth-Moon system, it is incumbent on mission designers to review the technologies and habitats necessary to maintain optimal health, safety, and performance of crewmembers on those missions. The 2014 International Workshop on Research and Operational Considerations for Artificial Gravity (AG) Countermeasures brought together almost 100 scientists from the United States and abroad who participated in an update of the state of the art of what we know about AG today. Emphasis was placed on integrating engineering aspects with physiological health requirements. Furthermore, it was a goal of the workshop to include presentations from NASA’s international partners to exploit available worldwide resources, thereby lowering costs and gaining the best knowledge. The main conclusion from the workshop is that AG during long-duration space missions is feasible from an engineering perspective, and that three types of scenarios should be considered: centrifugation inside a space vehicle; spinning part of a vehicle; or spinning the whole vehicle. Research should be initiated as soon as possible to establish the life science AG requirements. In addition, the extent to which current countermeasures need to be combined with AG must be determined.
Keywords: exposure; contamination; decontamination; regolith; spacecraft contamination;lunar dust; planetary protection; gloveboxes; cleaning
Abstract: During missions on asteroid and lunar and planetary surfaces, space systems and crew health may be degraded by exposure to dust and dirt. Furthermore, for missions outside the Earth-Moon system, planetary protection must be considered in efforts to minimize forward and backward contamination. This paper presents an end-to-end approach to ensure system reliability, crew health, and planetary protection in regolith environments. It also recommends technology investments that would be required to implement this layered engineering defense.
Keywords: display devices; electromagnetic interference; thermal vacuum; radiation; light emitting diodes; spacecraft environments
Abstract: This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) display performed as an engineering evaluation by Johnson Space Center (JSC)—specifically, electromagnetic interference, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light-emitting diode displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. Environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement between JSC and Honeywell International as a collaborative effort to evaluate potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions—both government-led and commercial.
Keywords: medical science;simulation; crew procedures; training; medical personnel; diagnosis; long duration space flight
Abstract: The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element of the NASA Human Research Program was requested by the NASA Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) team in December 2011 to provide medical scenarios as part of the AMO Test to evaluate autonomous operations for exploration class spaceflight missions. The primary objective of the AMO Test was to discern how astronauts will autonomously execute their mission tasks in the very limited presence of ground-based resources as part of an exploration class mission. This included the execution of medical procedures by minimally-trained caregivers with very limited remote guidance from a ground-based flight surgeon. The ExMC coordinated the development, integration, and execution of medical scenarios for the AMO team’s two-phased test with Phase 1 being a baseline data collection and Phase 2 being a data collection using tools to mitigate deficiencies captured during Phase 1. This report details the development, integration, execution, results, and conclusions from the ExMC’s preliminary evaluation of the autonomous management of medical events during an exploration class mission.
Keywords: Avionics; Hardware; Roadmap
Abstract: The results of the 2014 update of NASA’s Avionics Steering Committee (ASC) Technology Roadmap are provided. This is the result of a multi-center effort directed by the ASC to address its stated goal “to advance the avionics discipline ahead of program and project needs”. The NASA ASC is chartered out of the Office of Chief Engineer (OCE), and represents the Agency’s avionics workforce through its line management representatives. The ASC Technology Roadmap is intended to strategically guide avionics technology development to effectively meet future NASA missions’ needs. The roadmap addresses only flight avionics hardware and did not consider ground-based electronics, flight software, or ground software. The ASC Technology Roadmap looks out over 15+ years, with near-term focus on evolving technologies and a long-term look at technologies that are more revolutionary. From the key technologies identified, a subset was selected for near term Agency investments. Factors considered in making this selection included readiness of the technology itself, potential for external partners to help develop it, and existing/future NASA technology development investments. The ASC has also identified future efforts “to advance the avionics discipline ahead of program and project needs.”
Keywords: security; Raspberry Pi; automation; IEEE P1877; OpenVPN; computer software; computer hardware; computer networks; algorithms
Abstract: Protecting information and equipment at NASA is an area of increasing concern, after a GAO report in February (see also 2009), and an Inspector General release in March. Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition systems are especially vulnerable because these systems have lacked standards, use embedded controllers with little computational power and informal software, are connected to physical processes, have few operators, and are increasingly also being connected to corporate networks. The opportunity exists with IEEE 1877 to “build in” durable, scalable, effective security features. The standard interface needs standard security features that can support a variety of standards-based or proprietary architectures and be flexible enough to enable a response if some of these standard features are compromised, while supporting rather than interfering with an automated operations where one or a few operator(s) control many networked modules in a secure way. An approach was developed during the Summer of 2013 which remained to be validated in one of the test beds. The goal was to implement and evaluate approaches to both server-side security and client-side security, and tools for interacting with the interface such as browser plug-ins. The approaches developed may be refined as a result of this work.
Keywords: textiles; circuits; sewing; clothing; sensors; light-omitting diodes; computer aided manufacturing
Abstract: Wearable Electronic-textile Application & Research (WEAR) Lab’s primary focus is on developing electronic-textiles (e-textiles) and wearable technologies. An e-textile combines traditional textiles, such as fabric and thread, with electronics elements, such as microcontrollers, sensors, light-emitting diodes, displays, and tactors. Previously, the WEAR lab developed e-textiles by either sewing or embroidering conductive interconnects using conductive silver thread. Next, components would be either hand sewn or soldered in place. However, there have been difficulties in working with conductive threads as they are prone to fraying, breaking, and curling, especially when used in an embroidery machine. Further, hand sewing components in place is tedious and has led to component connections that would break down over time from strain. The WEAR lab recently acquired a Brother PR-650e embroidery machine, which allows for both larger e-textiles to be manufactured, as well as for greater control over thread tension. In developing procedures for using the Brother PR-650e to manufacture e-textiles, work was broken into individual phases. As lessons were learned from each phase, recommendations were made on what to adjust for the next phase.
Keywords: space systems; spacecraft design; operations; design process; systems engineering
Abstract: The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. Content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of NASA Agency-level standards directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft, internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B specifies the Agency’s human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. Although HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference missions.
Keywords: microbiology; pathogens; life sciences; health; microorgranisms; potable water; contamination; space flight
Abstract: Microbiological requirements that mitigate risk to the crew during space flight missions are periodically updated to reflect changes in the scientific understanding of microbial pathogenicity, our knowledge of the response of microorganisms to the space flight environment, effects of space flight upon human immunity, and advances in monitoring technology. Three expert panels held from 2011 through 2013 performed a review of microbiological requirements, based on new knowledge and available technologies. These panels focused on requirements associated with potable water, space flight food, and vehicle air and surfaces specifically described in NASA Space Flight Human System Standard (NASA-STD-3001). Evaluation of the recommendations from all three forums indicated 12 common themes, such as the need for appropriate microbiological training for individuals who would be developing or operating space flight systems and guidelines for current and future microbiological monitoring technology. The reoccurrence of these themes in multiple panels reinforced the importance of the consideration of these recommendations. These forums provided the opportunity to formally update and document our knowledge base for space flight microbiological requirements. Many of the recommendations in this report addressed medical operations, environmental sciences, and engineering activities.
Keywords: micrometeroid; orbital debris; impact; Earth orbit; spacecraft design; engineering; software
Abstract: This Bumper 3 code software user manual is intended for all specialty engineering analysts tasked with determining the risk of a mission-ending impact by a micrometeoroid or orbital debris (MMOD) particle for a spacecraft in Earth orbit. This s manual applies to edition BUMPER3-LITE-3.0. The Bumper 3 code is used to aid developing requirements during the systems requirement phase and to assess spacecraft designs during the development phase. The BUMPER software project documentation was tailored for a small legacy project. The new user will want to read Section 2.0 for an introduction to the Bumper 3 code tasks. Installation instructions are given in Section 3.0. The new user will then want to run through the probability of penetration task tutorial to familiarize themselves with the basic features. Users familiar with prior versions of BUMPER-II will want to read Section 2.2 for a list of the changes and new features. Instructions for using the new features are given in Section 5.0. The user requirements document, this software user manual, and the software design documentation produced from the doxygen computer-aided software engineering tool are the sole design and use information for the Bumper 3 code software project.
Keywords: decompression sickness; extravehicular activity; hypobaric atmospheres; decompression models, denitrogenation
Abstract: The Hypobaric Decompression Sickness (DCS) Treatment Model links a decrease in computed bubble volume from increased pressure, increased oxygen (O2) partial pressure, and passage of time during treatment to the probability of symptom resolution [P(symptom resolution)]. The decrease in offending volume is realized in 2 stages: a) during compression via Boyle’s law and b) during subsequent dissolution of the gas phase via the O2 window. We established an empirical model for the P(symptom resolution) while accounting for multiple symptoms within subjects. The data consisted of 154 cases of hypobaric DCS symptoms along with ancillary information from tests on 56 men and 18 women. Given the low probability of DCS during extravehicular activity and the prompt treatment of a symptom with guidance from the model, the symptom and the gas phase are likely to resolve with minimal resources and minimal impact to astronaut health, safety, and productivity.
Keywords: Project management; matrix management, methodology; NASA programs, Constellation Program; Risk Assessments, benchmarks; Cost reduction
Abstract: Program Planning and Control In Major Acquisition Programs describes common misrepresentations about performance management in major acquisition programs. It reviews the perpetual struggles within federal agencies to complete major acquisition programs within baseline values for cost and schedule to develop a new technical capability. Part I develops the observation that “scope is important” to identify limitations in performing common program management tasks using a traditional services-based approach. A history of continuing efforts to control cost and schedule growth is reviewed. A causal analysis is performed. Corrective action is defined, and a new approach for performing Program Planning and Control work is implemented. Part II develops the observation that “position is important” to explain how and why programs fail. It defines Human Factors as the fourth variable of program controls and is developing a methodology to gauge program status and to integrate it along with cost, schedule, and technical measurements into a more accurate portrayal of current and predicted program performance. This monograph explores how a paradigm shift for performing common program management tasks provides better program controls at substantially reduced costs that also improved program control.
Keywords: medical science; simulation; asteroids; crew procedures; training; medical personnel; long duration space flight
Abstract: In March 2012, the Mission Operations Test (MOT) Team of the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems project requested assistance from the Exploration Medical Capability in the development of a simulated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) mission. The simulation would take place in a flight analog located at the Johnson Space Center. In addition to providing a list of medical equipment relevant to a NEA mission, the ExMC coordinated the development, integration, and execution of medical scenarios for the MOT Team’s test to evaluate crew operations during exploration class space flight missions. This work also had direct applicability to the ExMC’s Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project. The EMSD project demonstrates, on the ground and in flight, an end-to-end medical system for exploration class missions. The ExMC used the MOT to evaluate, in a ground-analog environment, how the existing International Space Station medical resources would function on an exploration mission. Insights gained from the completion of this simulation enabled ExMC to make recommendations to overcome existing gaps in current exploration medical operations. This report details the development, integration, execution, results, and conclusions from ExMC’s preliminary evaluation of the medical capability that could be integrated into the EMSD and used for an exploration class mission.
Keywords: telemedicine; asteroids; crew procedures; preflight; training; medical personnel; long duration space flight
Abstract: The purpose of this document is to present the operational concepts for the telemedicine system needed to support human exploration missions to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs). This operational concepts document is being developed to guide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute in determining telemedicine and telementoring gaps that currently exist for exploration missions. This will document the consensus of the NASA space medicine community about the direction they would like to go and serve as a roadmap for future research and technology development in the area of telemedicine. This document focuses on the telemedicine and telementoring operational concepts required for a mission to a NEA.
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