Keywords: long duration space flight; aerospace medicine, telemedicine; medical equipment; health monitoring
Abstract: Telemedicine is a technologically driven field that encourages innovation and creative solutions. The literature highlights advancements in the field of telemedicine in each of four categories suggested: technical, clinical, human, and cost. Significant progress is being made toward the adoption of smart machines, high-quality applications, ergonomically sound devices, and cost-effective interoperable systems that improve the delivery of care. Solutions have resulted in patients with healthier outcomes, improved processes for provider care delivery, and extension of healthcare to remote areas. The current reach and breadth of telemedicine show substantial capacity to address the healthcare needs of remote areas, extreme environments, and the medically underserved. As telemedicine evolves, it is important that the needs of the patient and operator remain in the foreground. New technologies and processes are developing. Systems continue to become more interoperable. Costs of implementation decrease. Human operation must remain the foundation. Telemedicine is the result of collaboration of minds, interest groups, and specialized interests. The goal is to increase human resources for the purpose of better and preserve human life in extreme environments.
Keywords: teams; adaptation; coordination; autonomy; long duration space flight; task complexity; task scheduling
Abstract: A recent training needs analysis conducted for Long Duration Space Flight Crews, (Smith-Jentsch et al., 2011) noted that ISS crews must adapt to extreme shifts in task interdependence after long periods of entrainment. Entrainment, broadly defined, is a phenomenon in which two or more independent rhythmic processes synchronize with each other (McGrath, Kelly, & Machatka, 1984; McGrath & Rotchford, 1983). This report describes three situations in which such shifts should be particularly difficult: 1) when the prior entrainment period was long, 2) when the shift takes place early in a team’s development, and 3) when team fault-lines (subgroups based on one or more demographic attributes) exist (e.g., cultural). Hypotheses regarding specific types of coordination breakdowns that are likely to occur when shifting from low to high task interdependence are offered and supported using both theory and quotations taken from the author’s interviews with NASA astronauts. It is proposed that in order to test these hypotheses future research must 1) employ longitudinal designs, 2) examine multiple forms of entrainment simultaneously (e.g., physiological, lexical, social), 3) expand the range of interdependence examined to include negative interdependence, asymmetric interdependence, and autonomy, and 4) examine bi-directional relationships between actual and perceived interdependence.
Keywords: Abilities; Depression; Emotions; Human resources; Human behavior; Human performance; Mental health; Moods; Psychological effects
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to: 1) provide a systematic review of the literature characterizing the well-being performance relationship in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) contexts, and 2) to examine temporal trends in well-being in ICE environments. Using a three-dimensional framework (hedonic well-being, eudaimonic well-being, and psychological capital) the report first summarizes the existing literature examining the relationship between these three domains of well-being and performance and health outcomes. Results show that psychological capital had the strongest and most consistent (positive) relationship with task performance, hedonic well-being the most consistent (negative) relationship with perceptions of stress, and eudaimonic well-being the most consistent (negative) relationship with psychosocial symptomatology. All three types of well-being showed consistent (positive) relationships with indirect performance correlates. The analysis of temporal trends in indicators of behavioral health yielded several notable findings, including: a) greater change in health scores at the beginning and end of missions, b) similar trends in health scores for both short- and long-duration missions, and c) heterogeneous crew composition (in nationality and gender) may not be detrimental to crew behavioral health. Implications for future research are discussed within.
Keywords: Abilities; Depression; Emotions; Human resources; Human behavior; Human performance; Mental health; Moods; Psychological effects
Abstract: This report is designed to increase understanding of resilience and growth in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments. Part I of the report begins with a review of the broader academic literature on resilience and growth. This literature has identified various individual, social, and environmental factors that protect individuals and teams from the negative effects of stress. Although there is only limited empirical evidence concerning the effects of these protective factors in ICE environments, it largely aligns with the effects observed within the broader literature. Specifically, perceived social support, problem-focused coping strategies, and positive cognitive reappraisal of stressors serve as important factors contributing to resilience and growth in ICE environments. Part II of this report describes the results of interviews with 10 subject matter experts (SMEs) regarding the conceptualization and the role of resilience and growth in long-duration space missions. Major themes identified by SMEs include: a) the social aspects of resilience are more salient due to the nature of ICE environments, b) crew compatibility has substantial effects on individual and crew resilience, and c) external entities (e.g., family, mission control, the organization) play an important role in both contributing to and threatening resilience and growth among astronauts.
Keywords: leadership; teams; performance; analog; analogous; behavior; environment; psychology
Abstract: This report describes the contract “Leadership/Followership for Long-Duration Exploration Missions (#NNJ13487783Q),” Michael D. Mumford, The University of Oklahoma, Principal Investigator. To start, a literature review identified the key conceptual issues and empirical findings with a review of: 1) relevant leadership content areas, 2) leadership in analog environments, and 3) leadership in analog job settings. Building from this review, an integrated leadership model was developed outlining the key capacities needed for Mission Control and Astronaut Crew leadership. This integrated model subsumes four leadership sub-models including the collective leadership of scientists and engineers, socio-emotional leadership, crisis/emergency leadership, and dyadic leadership, as well as a role switching decision framework for changing between models. We then provide recommendations for improving leader and follower performance. These recommendations include critical cognitive and social attributes likely to contribute to effective Mission Control and Astronaut leadership, as well as potential interventions for enhancing performance for each attribute. To supplement the literature review we conducted interviews with NASA staff to receive expert perspectives on effective leadership for long-duration space missions. This information, in turn, was used to assess the plausibility of, and to further develop, the proposed models. Upon completion of the interviews, a future research agenda was created.
Keywords: Crew, crew size, teams, human performance, long term effects, astronaut performance, performance prediction, performance management, personality, personnel selection, personnel, crews, flying personnel, astronauts, cosmonauts, flying crews, personnel management, human relations, human resources, personnel selection (aptitude, employment, personality)
Abstract: Team composition, or the configuration of team member attributes and their relations, is a key enabling structure of effective teamwork. A large body of research supports the importance of team composition; however, much of it is based on teams that operate in traditional workplaces. Given the unique context within which long-distance space exploration (LDSE) crews will operate (e.g., isolation, confinement), we sought to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews. We conducted a focused literature review and operational assessment related to team composition issues for LDSE. Our goals were to: (1) identify critical team composition issues and their effects on team functioning in LDSE-analogous environments with a focus on key composition factors that will most likely have the strongest influence on team performance and well-being, and (2) identify and evaluate methods used to compose teams with a focus on methods used in analogous environments. We summarize results in terms of the two primary paths through which team composition relates to mission success, indirect and direct methods of assessing compatibility, and the themes from our operational assessment. Recommendations for research and practice regarding effective team composition for LDSE are provided.
Keywords: galactic cosmic radiation, GCR, Badhwar - O'Neill model
Abstract: The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model is based on GCR measurements from particle detectors. The model has mainly been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and the analysis of radiation health risks to astronauts in space missions. The BON14 model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model also incorporates an empirical time delay function to account for the lag of the solar activity to reach the boundary of the heliosphere. This technical paper describes the most recent improvements in parameter fits to the BON model (BON14). Using a comprehensive measurement database, it is shown that BON14 is significantly improved over the the previous version, BON11.
Keywords: life support systems; subsystems; environments; environmental control; systems integration; exploration
Abstract: The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions that can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies’ performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development. The BVAD identifies specific physical quantities that define life support systems from an analysis and modeling perspective. For each physical quantity so identified, the BVAD provides a nominal or baseline value and often provides a range of possible or observed values. Finally, the BVAD documents each entry with a description of the quantity’s use, value selection rationale, and appropriate references. The baseline values listed in the BVAD are designed to provide defaults for those quantities within each study that are not of particular interest for that study and may be adequately described by default values.
Keywords: pyrotechnics; frangible joint; manned spaceflight; human-rated spacecraft; testing; inspection; verification
Abstract: The purpose of this document is to define a series of test and inspection requirements for a specific type of frangible joint (FJ) assembly used in human-rated spacecraft applications. It is intended to be an enhancement to the Commercial Crew Program Johnson Space Center (JSC) 62809D Human Rated Spacecraft Pyrotechnic Specification and lists very specific tests and inspections with accompanying tables. This document does not eliminate any of the requirements stated in JSC 62809D. Many of the test and inspections in this document—particularly within the material certification, product acceptance, qualification, lot acceptance, and age life extension sections—are standard operating procedure for suppliers. This document provides detail on the individual items to avoid ambiguity. In particular, this document details the test and inspection requirements for offset notch style FJs with aluminum machined plates where the separation at the notch is a result of shock-induced shear. It is expected that a user would tailor the contents of this document for his or her particular vehicle application and provide a certifying organization with rationale for such tailoring. Tailoring to the requirements of this document requires approval of the certifying organization (e.g., NASA for a NASA human space flight program).
Keywords: habitat, volume, environment, habitat design, behavior, psychology, deep space, exploration, vehicle
Abstract: NASA’s plans for future spaceflight include long duration journeys to and from distant planetary surfaces, requiring crew live and work for a period of up to two and a half years in an isolated and confined environment. Given the unprecedented distance and duration of such missions, determining the minimum acceptable net habitable volume for required vehicles remains a challenge, particularly since there have been no universally accepted a priori criteria for judging adequate volume limits for proposed design reference mission’s parameters. The current effort describes the results of a consensus session held at NASA Johnson Space Center to derive a minimum acceptable NHV number for a Mars mission. Five subject matter experts (SMEs) with relevant backgrounds in psychology (behavioral, cognitive, and environmental), architecture, and industrial ergonomics, gathered with representatives from to NASA to discuss the evidence to date from their respective fields, and the constraints and parameters of planned exploration missions. The SMEs provided a minimal acceptable NHV number, define the dependencies of the number based on caveats and countermeasure scenarios, and provided guidelines regarding how minimal acceptable NHV volume may change with duration. Future research efforts to test and validate these recommendations are planned.
Keywords: Astronauts; microgravity; veins; spaceflight; cardiovascular; research facility
Abstract: Above 40% of American astronauts developed permanent changes in visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. Astronauts participating in short-duration missions have experienced reversible changes in vision without permanent alterations to the eye. Observations of post-flight data have indicated the permanence of ocular perturbations as a potential consequence of microgravity exposure as defined by the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure syndrome (VIIP) syndrome. Changes include papilledema, choroidal folds, posterior globe flattening, and dilation of the optic nerve sheath. Limited data suggests that central venous pressure (CVP) either decreases or does not change upon entry into microgravity. No data currently exists beyond this point. Current data available from post-flight measurements are inconclusive. It is important to find a non-invasive method of CVP measurement to provide further insight into the nature of the VIIP syndrome. We sought to determine the validity of compression sonography in selected veins by comparing the non-invasive measures of peripheral venous pressure in two veins to invasive measures obtained from a venous catheter with an in-line pressure transducer. Repeatability of non-invasive venous pressure measurements were evaluated in four different veins during rest and under conditions of elevated venous pressure. Finally, we assessed intra- and inter-operator variability of non-invasively acquired peripheral venous pressures.
Keywords: sensory stimulation; boredom; detachment; stress; virtual reality; long duration space mission; isolated confined and extreme environment; affect; information foraging; restoration
Abstract: The dramatically reduced levels and monotonous nature of sensory stimulation experienced in isolated, confined and extreme (ICE) environments are major potential contributors to the risk of adverse behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders during long-duration space missions (LDSM). A literature review (covering spaceflight, LDSM analogs and cognitive neuroscience literature) and operational assessment (interviews with subject-matter experts) identified potentially mission-critical effects of inadequate sensory stimulation. This review guided the creation of a general framework for how reduced levels and variety of sensory stimulation impact perception, cognition, affect and mood in ICE environments. The framework a) identifies four key biological and psychological needs that sensory stimulation addresses, and b) delineates the ways in which sensory stimulation relates to stress and resilience. Countermeasures for meeting these need states are presented and evaluated for their effectiveness, feasibility during LDSM, and likely acceptance by the crew. Constructs relevant to the measurement of sensory stimulation and its effects are identified, and a framework outlined for characterizing individual differences in sensory stimulation needs and resilience to boredom. Finally, specific recommendations for countermeasure implementation and future research are presented, with a focus on how to identify need states (e.g. information foraging vs. restoration/relaxation) and deliver targeted, dose-dependent countermeasures.
Keywords: software engineering; verification; design; natural language processing; algorithms; requirements; VARED; methods analysis; model-based engineering
Abstract: The Verification and Analysis for Requirements and Early Design (VARED) tool chain has been developed to put tools for formal methods analysis and model-based engineering methodologies on the desk of the software requirements engineer. The tool chain consists of a natural language processing tool that, once given a set of requirements and a preliminary state model of the system under design, can formalize the requirements in Linear Temporal Logic specifications. These formalized requirements can be checked for consistency (satisfiability and vacuity). The designer is given tools for designing an early representation of the control system described by the requirements, and the final part of the tool chain is a symbolic model checker that can be used to verify the controller design against the formal requirements statements. This report describes the development of the tool chain and the state-based design methodology used in the system development. Several example systems are presented and run through the tool chain, including a real flight system, the International Space Station (ISS) SAFER (Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue). Finally, an analysis of the applicability and strengths and weaknesses of the VARED tool chain is presented.
Keywords: Bandwidth; wireless communication; ground communication; routers; firmware; computer components; computers
Abstract: Emerging mesh protocols enable IEEE 802.11 to provide proximity communication links in locations that do not have pre-deployed dedicated communication infrastructure. Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is used to provide end-to-end reliability when the retransmission path contains network nodes that are not constantly connected, and bandwidth is at a premium. An integrated DTN Mesh would provide reliable communication coverage for mobile and power-conserving assets. Inexpensive wireless routers with OpenWRT firmware along with network-attached storage devices can be used to develop and demonstrate the functionality of integrating DTN nodes into a mesh. This project consisted of four steps. Formatting external hard drives, downloading and installing required packages, programming the routers, and testing the network.
Keywords: spacecraft design; aerospace safety; mirometeoroids; cosmic rays; Comet Nucleus Tour; extravehicular activity; telerobotics; risk assessment
Abstract: As NASA develops more interest within Deep-Space Exploration (DSE), there are a variety of Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) concerns that need to be addressed to lower the risks of loss of crew or loss of mission. Low-Earth Orbit RMS paradigms are no longer valid because of the nature of a Deep-Space (DS) mission. An overview research effort has been put forward to identify RMS practices from past human spaceflight programs, and then re-evaluate and apply them into DSE craft design and processes. Design considerations investigated include general hardware considerations, and the human factors affects on a DS spacecraft. This information will help spacecraft designers prioritize subsystems for maintenance therefore decreasing the likelihood of failures. In the past, maintainability was not as much of a concern because missions were closer to Earth. Temporary fixes were possible because missions were shorter. Resupply missions were possible because of the closer distance; therefore, missing a spare was not as dire. However, temporary fixes during a short-term mission eventually needed to be managed with a more permanent solution. In DSE missions, the opportunity for resupply missions may not be readily available. It is important to implement more efficient RMS standards to overcome these obstacles.
Keywords: musculoskeletal system; physical examinations; space flight; physical exercise; ergonomics; International Space Station; osteoporosis
Abstract: Exploration-class missions will be longer in duration and farther away from Earth. These factors paired with labor-intensive tasks associated with the mission will increase the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries such as sprains and strains. The diagnosis of musculoskeletal injuries is complex as it involves the need for a proper history, a physical examination, and the potential need for diagnostic imaging. However, a key concern is whether proper equipment will be afforded for such missions from the standpoint of treatment and rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the scope and incidence of in-flight musculoskeletal injuries while defining the requirements for terrestrial treatment. Additionally, the role of rehabilitation during recovery and the impact of not having the necessary equipment will be explored.
Keywords: risk assessment; landing; abort; launch vehicles; space capsules; injuries
Abstract: A panel of experts was convened in 2010 to help define acceptable injury risk levels for space vehicle launches, landings, and abort scenarios. Classifications of spaceflight-relevant injuries were defined using four categories ranging from minor to severe injury. Limits for each injury category were agreed to, dependent on the expected number of crew exposures in a given vehicle and on whether the flight was considered nominal or off-nominal. Somers et al. captured the findings of this summit in a NASA technical memorandum. This panel was recently reconvened (December 1, 2014) to determine whether the previous recommended injury limits were applicable to newly designed commercial spaceflight vehicles. In particular, previous limits were based in part on the number of crew exposures per vehicle and also were sensitive to a definition of nominal and off-nominal vehicle performance. Reconsideration of these aspects led to a new consensus on a definition of injury risk.
Keywords: Psychology, Psychological Effects, Psychological Factors, Astronaut Performance, Stress (psychology), Long duration space flight, Astronaut Training, Crews, Manned Mars missions, Teams
Abstract: This report presents a semi-quantitative model, database of supporting studies, and a method to continue modeling the psychosocial factors most likely to influence and impact teams during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (Behavioral Health and Performance, Team Gap 1). The model follows an Input-Process-Output framework with four layers of psychosocial factors: 1) Situational and Individual Inputs, 2) Hidden Aggregates and States, 3) Teamwork Processes, and 4) Team Performance Output. This model and modeling process are an attempt to integrate very discrepant data, study types, contexts, and theories into one conceptualization that may be used to inform NASA’s future research decisions regarding which psychosocial factors might be most profitably addressed or leveraged given limited resources to support Long Duration Space-flight Exploration Missions.
Keywords: Orion, MPCV, EFT1, BIRD, Radiation
Abstract: This report summarizes the data acquired by the Battery-operated Independent Radiation Detector (BIRD) during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). The BIRD, consisting of two redundant subsystems isolated electronically from the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), was developed to fly on the Orion EFT-1 to acquire radiation data throughout the mission. The BIRD subsystems successfully triggered using on-board accelerometers in response to launch accelerations, acquired and archived data through landing, and completed the shut down routine when battery voltage decreased to a specified value. The data acquired are important for understanding the radiation environment within the Orion MPCV during transit through the trapped radiation belts.
Keywords: teams, cognition, decision making, problem solving, training analysis, long duration space flight
Abstract: To date, most spaceflight research has examined only individual cognitive factors, when it is often the team cognitive processes of space and ground crews that lead to successful missions. Toward this end, our research took a multidisciplinary literature review and operational assessment approach to form the foundation for understanding the issues surrounding team cognition for future long-duration space exploration missions. On the one hand, we conducted an extensive review of research examining individual cognition in space. With this firm grounding in empirical research on cognition in space, we integrated this with research done on team cognition in complex, albeit, non-space environment. Such comparisons allowed us to identify key individual cognitive factors that potentially contribute to team-level cognitive processes critical for the maintenance of effective and adaptive team performance and overall, crew well-being. As such, we discuss issues related to, or supporting, team cognitive processes, and current methods used to address these in other relevant domains. In turn, the results of our literature review and operational assessment take the form of recommendations for future research related to training, selection, composition, and monitoring critical team cognitive processes that are consistent with operational needs.
Keywords: display devices; thermal vacuum; radiation; light emitting diodes;
Abstract: This paper discusses a comparison of active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display technologies against conventional active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) technologies for use in environments associated with crewed deep spaceflight missions. LCD based and organic light emitting diode (OLED) based display technology discussion centers around non-space flight characteristics such as reliability, image and video performance, and display color temperature stability in addition to unique space flight characteristics such as radiation tolerance, thermal vacuum performance, display surface optics and material considerations. The focus of this paper is to highlight steps taken in attempting to understand which characteristics are of particular significance as applied to the emerging OLED display technology, in addition to brief market considerations of when, and if, OLED could be the right solution for display use in crewed space flight missions.
Keywords: display devices; radiation; long duration space flight; spacecraft environments; deep space;
Abstract: Visualization of spacecraft telemetry is an essential safety critical component to an astronaut crew’s ability to interface with their spacecraft. The preferred approach would be to use a modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to make the presentation of such telemetry possible. The situational experience aboard a spacecraft may mirror modern technologies similar to what might be found in the commercial aviation field. Unfortunately, the GPUs available from commercial aviation glass cockpit display systems or even the GPUs found in desktop personal computers are unsuitable for incorporation into a spacecraft that is expected to travel beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The principal factors working against direct application of commercial GPU-based systems are the radiation environment experienced by a spacecraft traveling BEO and the need for the cockpit display systems to be safety certified.. This report describes the software Graphics Processing Unit (sGPU) development work and the preliminary test results of a GPU architecture that may be suitable to not only meet the deep space environment and spacecraft situational awareness requirements, but also provide a means of safety certification of displays along with potentially reduced life-cycle cost associated with spacecraft displays.
Keywords: teams; motivation; long duration space flight; preparation; autonomy; workloads
Abstract: This review was commissioned by the Behavioral Health and Performance Research Element (BHP-R) of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in order to review the issues that might arise in maintaining team (crew) motivation over long durations. The team and spaceflight literatures were reviewed and ten interviews were conducted with a variety of spaceflight experts. This review is organized by the five distinctive crew motivational challenges (CMCs) that were identified in the interviews, including (1) the presence of motivational challenges, (2) mission preparation, (3) crew autonomy, (4) workload, and (5) team composition and individual differences. For each of the CMCs, the results of the expert interviews are provided, followed by the results of the literature review. Each section concludes with potential solutions to the CMCs identified. The report concludes with a summary of the results and suggestions for future research.
Keywords: culture (social sciences); teams; group dynamics; long duration space flight; cohesion; human performance; decision making; training devices; education; international cooperation
Abstract: Culture has been a factor for space exploration since the mid 1970’s when the U. S. first partnered with Russia in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Work has indicated that culturally-based differences in values, beliefs, and preferences for cognition and action can have an impact on interdependent action (Stahl, Maznevski, Voigt, & Jonsen, 2010). The unique nature of spaceflight and long duration, distance exploration missions (LDDEM) drives the question as to whether cultural diversity within spaceflight crews has the same impact on team performance as that reported within the wider literature on cross-cultural teams/cross-cultural diversity. There has been limited research conducted on cultural diversity within long duration spaceflight. This report documents the process and findings of an integrative review to catalog potential challenges brought about by cultural diversity in teams, what has been done to mitigate those challenges, and how this work might be leveraged in LDDEM. This effort incorporates a review of the scientific literature and an operational assessment from individuals with experience in LDDEM.
Keywords: sleep; workshop; chronic; restriction; circadian; misalignment; exploration; cumulative; loss; lymphatic
Abstract: In September 2014, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), held a collaborative workshop on Sleep in Space. Workshop participants included subject matter experts external to NASA, representatives from the National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSB), and NASA representatives including researchers, flight surgeons, and management. A panel consisting of Shuttle and ISS astronauts provided valuable crew-member perspectives. Workshop presentations focused on sleep in spaceflight, as well as terrestrial research which identifies deleterious performance and health outcomes associated with chronic partial sleep restriction. Outcomes included sleep-related changes in immune, the lymphatic system, team performance, and bone health. This report highlights recommendations for both NASA operations and research related to maintaining sleep and circadian rhythms in future exploration missions. For example, workshop participants recommended other disciplines (e.g. bone, cardiovascular, human factors) at NASA incorporate sleep and circadian metrics (e.g., sleep duration, cumulative sleep loss, circadian misalignment, timing of the measurement) as potential contributors in their analyses. Objective measures of sleep feasible in the spaceflight environment were also recommended for both current and future missions.
Keywords: training analysis; astronaut training; training evaluation; space flight training psychological factors; personnel development; analysis; analyzing; psychology; astronaut performance
Abstract: This report describes a team training needs analysis dedicated to identifying characteristics of the task environment Long Duration Space Flight (LDSF) crews face that are both unique to this type of team and are expected to have a significant impact on team competency requirements and the strategies used to address those training needs. The current report is organized into four sections. First, we synthesize literature indicating the major categories of team task characteristics that have been shown to moderate team training requirements and effectiveness. Second, we describe the methods used to interview twelve National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts during the months of February and June 2010. Third, we identify five task characteristics associated with LDSF crews that were derived from transcripts of the interviews conducted that are both unique to this type of team relative to other teams operating in high risk environments and are expected to impact team training requirements. Fourth, we identify the specific team competency requirements that should be impacted by these unique characteristics. Finally, we identify research questions that should be answered in order to inform the development of strategies designed to address these unique team training needs.
Keywords: cognitive; cognition; teams; mental performance; stress ; analogs; models; psychology; performance
Abstract: We summarize the results of a (1) comprehensive literature review on team cognition relevant for LDSE, (2) review of relevant team cognition measurement methodologies, and (3) operational assessment of NASA practices as they relate to development and maintenance of team cognition. The literature review findings are used to identify the (1) conclusions that can be drawn based on the extant empirical research about how the context of spaceflight will affect team cognition, (2) conclusions that can’t be drawn based on the extant empirical research because the context under which team cognition has been studied does not exhibit adequate ecological validity to spaceflight, and (3) the most critical areas for future research on team cognition. We evaluate team cognition measures along five-factors relevant to LDSE, and summarize the measurement approaches that have been developed and reported in prior research. The results of our operational assessment include three operational recommendations concerning the importance of team cognitive processes to the smooth operation of long duration space exploration missions as well as three research recommendations likely to be most critical in understanding the specific nature of how team cognition affects individual psychosocial adaptation and team performance during LDSE missions.
Keywords: neurobehavioral, neurocognitive, cognitive, affective, emotional, anxiety, attention, concentration, depression, memory
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to contribute to the understanding of neurobehavioral conditions in spaceflight by examining the neurobehavioral signs, symptoms, and diagnoses identified in spaceflight and other isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments. There are five specific objectives met by this report. Objective 1. Create a taxonomy of neurobehavioral signs and symptoms in ICE settings. Objective 2. A systematic review of neurobehavioral signs, symptoms, and diagnoses commonly found in ICE settings. Objective 3. Seek to identify underlying causes of neurobehavioral issues. Objective 4. Evaluate the validity and practical efficiency of existing scales to assess neurobehavioral issues. Objective 5. Provide recommendations for future work in this area. This report will address each of these five objectives in the order presented. Investigators conducted an operational assessment of 12 subject matter experts. This operational assessment helps address Objective 3. However, the findings of the operational assessment are used to supplement the results of the literature review and to help inform the recommendations for future research.
Keywords: orbital debris; space debris; debris environment; engineering model; debris flux;
Abstract: This report documents the verification and validation (V&V) of the ORDEM 3.0 software package. These processes determine whether all phases of product software development perform as intended (verification) and whether the final model populations match the actual debris environment, as surmised from available data sources (validation). The ORDEM debris and intact population files encompass a very large and disparate set of sizes (10 µm - 1 m), orbit types (LEO, MEO, Molniya, GTO, and GEO), dates (2010 through 2035) and observation methods (remote sensors, returned surfaces). The ODPO chose to rely on the IEEE V&V standards to organize the assessments. For verification assessments comparisons are made between the ORDEM 3.0 software and ODPO legacy software. For validation assessments the comparisons are between ORDEM 3.0 software and statistically viable observations. Each metric assessment lists an outcome as pass/fail. Tables of outcomes with detailed statistical information are included throughout the text and appendices. Charts in the appendices provide more detail on the assessments.
Keywords: micrometeroids; hypervelocity impact; shielding; protection; honeycomb structures; space debris; spacecraft design
Abstract: Spacecraft weight and/or volume restrictions often prevent the inclusion of a dedicated shield for protection against the impact of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD). In such circumstances, shielding is provided by the vehicle’s primary structure – commonly constructed of honeycomb core sandwich panels (HC SPs). Although their high specific strength and stiffness are ideal for structural requirements, the protective capability of HC SPs is rather poor. For the majority of impact conditions relevant to MMOD, pressures generated during impact are sufficient to induce projectile fragmentation. Common MMOD shielding configurations utilize this effect by locating a thin, sacrificial plate (aka bumper plate) ahead of the vehicle pressure hull. Expanding projectile and bumper fragments disperse as they propagate through the shield, spreading the load over an area of the pressure hull significantly larger than that of the original projectile. Metallic foams are a promising new material for spacecraft primary structures as they provide comparative mechanical performance to metallic honeycombs without the presence of channeling cells detrimental to MMOD shielding. The objective of this study was to characterize the shielding performance of sandwich panel structures with open-cell metallic foam cores. The test program was divided into four phases, each with a different objective.
Keywords: Apollo planning; Apollo project; Apollo science; Apollo training; Apollo simulations; Astronaut training; Lunar science; Lunar exploration; NASA space programs
Abstract: Following President Kennedy’s initiation of Project Apollo, NASA underwent substantial changes in personnel, organization, and programs and faced a major question: what to do on the Moon after landing. Once a decision that science activities, particularly geoscience, should be pursued, considerable debate ensued over how to accomplish this. Questions arose over instruments and tools required, samples and photos to be returned, landing site selection, and crew composition. Answers to these questions required major efforts for planning traverses on the Moon and training the astronauts in the extensive procedures necessary in low gravity to use tools, set up instruments, take adequate photos, collect and document samples, and provide proper descriptions. In addition to astronauts on the surface, an astronaut in lunar orbit managed additional instruments, photography and verbal descriptions. Training for these activities averaged nearly one hundred hours per month for over a year for each crew. There were many problems as the training progressed: adjusting groups and backgrounds of the training personnel for the best combination of personalities and skills, overcoming logistical troubles, revising awkward procedures, determining optimum means of communications between all involved groups, and devising contingency procedures for real-time problems. By the last mission these problems were overcome.
Keywords: human systems integration; human system design; human factors; man-machine systems; human space flight; human centered design; domain; integration; systems design; software; hardware; human performance; education; systems engineering
Abstract: The purpose of the Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner’s Guide, also known as the HSIPG, is to enable incorporation of Agency HSI policies and processes into development and deployment of NASA systems. The HSIPG is intended to serve as a training and support aid for NASA HSI practitioners and their team members. The HSIPG is written to aid the HSI practitioner engaged in a program or project (P/P), and serves as a knowledge base to allow the practitioner to step into an HSI lead or team member role for NASA missions. Additionally, this guide should be shared with others in the P/P management and systems engineering (SE) communities as an aide to their understanding the value added by incorporating good HSI practices into their endeavors. Specific aims of this guide are to define HSI, to illustrate the value of HSI in programmatic decisions, to demonstrate how HSI fits into the NASA SE process, to provide examples of HSI contributions to reductions in human error and life cycle cost, and to provide helpful information on HSI resources within the NASA community.
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