Keywords: adaptation, resilience, team, crews, acclimatization, analog simulations
Abstract: Given that future space crews of long-duration exploration missions will have to be more autonomous and handle any disruptions that they may face with less assistance from ground personnel than has been the case with prior space missions, the topics of team adaptation and resilience are becoming more salient for mission effectiveness. Accordingly, with this project, we sought out to gain a deeper understanding of the team adaptation and resilience nomological networks. To accomplish this goal, we performed an extensive literature review focused, in particular, on factors that give rise to team adaptation and resilience; as well as the resulting by-products of these two related (but distinct) constructs. Additionally, we conducted nine 1-hour interviews of various NASA personnel to understand their experiences regarding team adaptation and resilience and to gain their insights in regards to how these constructs will likely be different within future long-duration missions. Upon integrating the lessons learned from each of these parts of the project, we outline our recommendations for future missions as well as some research projects that should be explored in order to better understand team adaptation and resilience.
Keywords: biological;emotional; social; support; serotonin; oxytocin; BDNF; cortisol; dopamine; endorphins
Abstract: The social support circuitry of the brain developed evolutionarily to not only make it easier for humans to live in close proximity, but to actually benefit from it. The beneficial effects of a healthy social support circuit are seen in improved cardiovascular, immune and emotional health. The social support circuit depends on experience-driven plasticity, that is, there are neurochemical and cellular changes which are necessary to respond to a changing environment. The same factors are used across the lifespan, from maternal/infant bonding, to peer bonding to pair-bonding. The principle factors involved in the experience-driven plasticity of the social support network are serotonin, oxytocin and BDNF (which increase the integrity of the network) and cortisol (which leads to damage to the network). These factors can be measured and used to study and assess the integrity of the circuit in individuals in different environments.To further our understanding of the biology of social support, several different model systems may prove useful in humans. Isolated and confined environments may provide a large number of subjects, not available in the high fidelity environments. In human disease states, both autism and loneliness are worth studying – in particular, loneliness may model maladaptation to long term social isolation best. In animal studies, social isolation of rodents can be very useful, in particular studies with the pair-bonded prairie vole or with rodents transitioning from parent to peer bonding.A thorough understanding of the biology and plasticity of the social support circuit is essential in planning for the effects of separation from one’s typical social support during long term space travel, as this circuit is ultimately responsible for many other features of human physical and mental well-being.
Keywords: BIRD, EFT1, Timepix, Trapped Radiation, protons, MPCV
Abstract: The Battery-operated Independent Radiation Detector and Radiation Area Monitors ?own on-board the Exploration Flight Test 1 mission provide a unique opportunity to compare vehicle modeling results with both active and passive radiation measurements. The environment de?nitions and modeling e?orts are described, and a comparison of passive and active measurements is presented with respect to the modeling results.
Keywords: preflight, occupational, social, support, mentoring, network, pre-launch, resilience, appraisal, long duration, exploration
Abstract: This report presents methods and results of a literature review and operational assessment interviews on pre-flight occupational social support as a potential behavioral health countermeasure delivered prior to long duration spaceflight. The literatures reviewed included observational and intervention studies relevant to occupational social support conducted among military personnel, first respondents and other emergency personnel, law enforcement officials, and other professionals working in potentially high stress occupations. Interventions reviewed included those involving direct provision of social support (e.g., mentoring, executive coaching), as well as training in skills intended to enhance provision and receipt of social support within the occupational setting (e.g., social resilience training). The operational assessment involved semi-structured interviews of 8 subject matter experts, including retired astronauts, space analogue participants, astronaut trainers, a NASA mentoring program representative, Behavioral Health and Performance Operations personnel, and a military scientist with social support research experience. Content domains included: identification of high priority countermeasure behavioral health outcome targets, identification of currently available sources of support for astronauts accessible prior to long duration spaceflight, assessment of the feasibility of delivering social support countermeasures, identification of potential barriers and facilitators of new social support countermeasures, and applicability of analogue contexts to research examining organizational support countermeasures.
Keywords: Human space flight, human factors, isolation and confinement, behavioral health and performance, International Space Station, third quarter phenomenon, asteroids, Mars
Abstract: Confidential journals were maintained by astronauts during expeditions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and were analyzed to compare to journals that were obtained when crews and the station were smaller. Ten astronauts who were members of two- and three-person crews participated in the original study and wrote most about work, outside communications, adjustment to the conditions, and interactions with crew mates; ten additional astronauts who were members of six-person crews participated in the second phase of the study and wrote most about their adjustment to ISS conditions, followed by their work, outside communications, and group interaction. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the expeditions and identified factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals and questionnaire responses showed that living and working on the ISS was not as difficult as the astronauts anticipated before starting their six-month tours of duty.
Keywords: gravity, acceleration, gravitational acceleration, spherical harmonics, normalization, singularity, Lear, Gottlieb, Pines, Legendre
Abstract: Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the consequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the asphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of an aspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities that must be removed to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Samuel Pines, Bill Lear, and Robert Gottlieb developed three unique algorithms to eliminate these singularities.This paper documents the methodical normalization of two of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear and Gottlieb algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre polynomials and Associated Legendre Functions (ALFs) for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.
Keywords: hypogravity, artificial gravity, analogs, physiological responses, weightlessness simulation
Abstract: The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) convened a half-day workshop in February 2015 focusing on potential analogs that can simulate exposure to partial gravity (also known as hypogravity, equal to a G level between 0 and 1). Partial-gravity environments may be found on planetary surfaces such as the Moon and Mars, and in spacecraft using artificial gravity. Analogs that simulate effects of such partial gravity would allow researchers to determine what level of partial gravity is the most effective to mitigate the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, or if additional countermeasures are required. To that end, scientists and managers from the different HHC disciplines and HRP elements were invited to provide inputs and discuss the utility of the different potential partial-gravity analogs. This paper is a summary of these discussions.
Keywords: team health and performance, space vehicle habitability, countermeasures, net habitable volume (NHV), risk factors
Abstract: Incompatible spaceflight habitat design is a significant risk to team health and performance in long-duration missions, yet we lack sufficient data regarding the nature of that risk and how best to mitigate it. This study begins to address those knowledge gaps through a review of relevant evidence regarding risks and countermeasures and an operational assessment providing additional insights from subject matter experts, including space and analog crew members. Based on these data sources, promising countermeasures are identified and recommendations and priorities for future research are provided.
Keywords: spacecraft environments, long duration space flight, team health and performance, risk assessment
Abstract: This study, based on extensive literature reviews and expert interviews, provides an in-depth look at the environmental stressors associated with long-duration spaceflight environments, outlines the risks that those stressors pose for psychological and behavioral health, and recommends a portfolio of countermeasures to help mitigate those risks. Section One provides a framework for understanding the environmental risk factors related to behavioral health and performance during long-duration spaceflight and details the observed consequences of those risks. This section is based on an extensive literature review across a broad range of fields. Section Two provides a review of the empirical evidence regarding specific countermeasures to reduce the risks associated with isolated, confined, and extreme environments. This section identifies which countermeasures may be particularly effective in reducing environmental stressors and maintaining psychological health and well-being in spaceflight environments. Section Three provides an operational assessment based on interviews with ten subject matter experts in fields relevant to psychological health in long-duration spaceflight. Results from this assessment offer additional insights regarding countermeasures. Section Four integrates lessons learned from the literature review, evidence review, and operational assessment to form specific recommendations for the development of a countermeasure portfolio. In addition, research needs regarding countermeasures are discussed.
Keywords: analogs, long duration space flight, environments, research, theories; astronaut health and performance
Abstract: This report constitutes the third deliverable for NASA Contract Number NNJ15HK13P titled “Meaningful Work.” This report is presented in four different sections. The first section reviews academic research on meaning in life and meaningful work, as well as research on boredom and monotony. The second section reviews prior research on the role of meaningful work and boredom/monotony in the adjustment and performance of astronauts and personnel in analog environments. The third section presents the results of an operational assessment of interviews with nine subject matter experts (SMEs; astronauts, explorers, astronaut trainers, mission planner, flight director) on the role of meaningful work in the adjustment and performance of individuals in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments. The final section includes recommendations for interventions designed to enhance the perception of meaningful work on long-duration space exploration mission (LDSEM), and directions for future research on meaningful work as a stress mitigation strategy for astronauts on LDSEM. The key conclusions from the report regarding the role of meaningful work for astronauts on LDSEM are described below according to whether they are based on the literature reviews or the operational assessment of SMEs. Recommendations for future research are then briefly highlighted.
Keywords: carbon dioxide, exposure, air quality, repiration, psychomotor performance, neurology, physiology, cognition
Abstract: Existing research has reliably demonstrated the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation at moderately increased levels, with documented physiological changes to heart rate, blood pressure, tissue pH, and blood solubility. Studies of indoor air quality have linked increased levels of ambient CO2 with physiological symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and sore throat. High levels of CO2 have reliably resulted in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and subjective anxiety responses in healthy individuals, as well as panic attack-like symptoms and experiences of physiological stress. While significant neurological findings correspond to high levels of CO2 exposure, less clinically significant cognitive effects may occur at a much lower level. These cognitive changes and the exposure thresholds at which they occur are less well established than their physiological counterparts; this paper, therefore, reviews the existing literature on the cognitive, neurological, and psychomotor effects of increased CO2 exposure, with the objective of identifying research areas in which further investigation remains necessary. In particular, this investigation is motivated by the chronic exposure to elevated ambient CO2 concentrations experienced by astronauts aboard the International Space Station, and the CO2 exposure-related symptoms that have been reported by astronauts on orbit.
Keywords: orbital debris; space debris; debris assessment software; spacecraft safety; OD Program Office; DAS
Abstract: The Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is provided by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office as a means of assessing, during the planning and design phases, a space mission’s compliance with NASA’s requirements for reduction of orbital debris as stated in NASA Technical Standard (NASA-STD)-8719.14A. After the software user inputs basic payload and mission data, DAS determines whether or not the mission complies with several (though not all) of the requirements described in the Standard. In addition to the assessment functions, a set of science and engineering utilities provide a number of functions useful for mission planning. The utilities may aid the user in determining why some aspect of their mission failed a Requirement Assessment and help them explore options that will pass assessment.
Keywords: Timepix, Ionizing Radiation, ISS
Abstract: The International Space Station Radiation Environment Monitor (ISS REM) is a small, low-power, hybrid-pixel radiation detector based on the CERN Timepix technology. Five detectors were ?own aboard ISS beginning in late 2012. This document contains the initial results from the ?rst year of operation as reviewed in late 2013, including hardware issues, detector performance, and development e?orts.
Keywords: microgravity; carbon monoxide; rebreathing; extravehicular activity; long duration space flight; space suit
Abstract: The aim of this study was to predict the physiological consequences of rebreathing carbon monoxide (CO) from a space suit during an extravehicular activity (EVA). A mathematical model of CO dynamics in the human body, based on Bruce and Bruce (2003), was used after appropriate alterations were made to parameter values to reflect changes observed during longer sojourns in microgravity. Simulations predict that rebreathing from the space suit volume during an EVA will result in the accumulation of CO in this volume and an increase of carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) of the astronaut, from an initial level of 0.5 - 1.0% before the EVA to 1.5 - 2.0% at the end of an EVA lasting for 8 hours. These levels of %COHb have not been associated with serious health effects in normal subjects in earth gravity (1G). The predicted effects of errors in important parameter values of the model, other than the rate of endogenous CO production (VdotCO), are minor; however, the predicted rise in %COHb during an EVA increases proportionately with an increase of VdotCO. Intersubject variability of parameter values combined with an increase of EVA duration could lead to %COHb greater than 2.5%, a level that has been associated with small effects on cognitive abilities.
Keywords: human behavior; human performance; psychological effects; psychology; teams
Abstract: As part of its integrated research plan, NASA seeks to manage the risk of performance and behavioral health decrements that result from inadequate cooperation, coordination, communication, and psychological adaptation within a team. As a part of this risk, NASA has identified a specific gap in understanding the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of teams that will embark on autonomous, long-duration and/or long-distance space exploration missions (LDSEM), Team Gap 1. An increasing number of studies have examined teams in LDSEM-analog environments (e.g., chamber simulations, Antarctic winter-overs) and can help inform this gap. We conducted a quantitative review of existing studies benchmarking team factors in LDSEM-analog environments to summarize the existing quantitative evidence on team functioning in such environments and to identify gaps to address in future research. This is the final report for our project (NASA contract NNJ15HK18P). We describe the methodology we used, the results of our efforts, and important research priorities related to Team Gap 1 moving forward.
Keywords: Surgery, space flight, exploration, medical expertise, robotics, telesurgery, smart medical systems, informatics
Abstract: Surgical capabilities in human space flight, whether on a space-based platform in low Earth orbit or on a long duration planetary exploration mission, will be challenging to conduct. Some may be ameliorated by training, technology, and pre-flight planning. Early space missions did not have any surgical capability. It was not until the Skylab missions that serious consideration was given to this fundamental medical care capability. Over the past 30 years, subject matter experts have discussed a myriad of challenges and opportunities in this endeavor. As we continue to move forward with human space flight activities, the capabilities of information technology, robotics, sensors, and imaging have rapidly changed. In December 2015, through sponsorship of the NSBRI, a diverse group of individuals from government, academia, and industry representing three countries gathered in Houston, TX. This 2-day symposia included comprehensive sessions that addressed the challenges in developing, deploying, and utilizing surgical care capabilities in all human space missions, regardless of mission duration or profile. The symposium benefited from the knowledge and experience of three seasoned NASA physician astronauts, Drs. Jay Buckey, Thomas Marshburn, and Lee Morin. It is clear that the discussion of surgical capabilities is part of the larger discussion of consideration of advanced healthcare, including critical care, on exploration space missions. This report represents the culmination of the symposium, capturing knowledge, experience, conceptual dialogue, and a narrative that can be used in supporting the development of future programs and potential policy.
Keywords: long duration spaceflight; habitability; sleep; environments; circadian rhythms
Abstract: As NASA prepares to send astronauts on long-duration, deep space missions, it is critical that the habitability of the sleep environment provide adequate mitigations for potential sleep disruptors. We conducted a comprehensive literature review summarizing optimal sleep hygiene parameters for lighting, temperature, airflow, humidity, comfort, intermittent and erratic sounds, and privacy and security in the sleep environment. We reviewed the design and use of sleep environments in a wide range of cohorts. We also reviewed the specifications and sleep quality data arising from every NASA spaceflight mission, beginning with Gemini. We conducted structured interviews with individuals experienced sleeping in non-traditional spaces. We also interviewed the engineers responsible for the design of the sleeping quarters presently deployed on the International Space Station. Modifiable sleeping compartments are necessary to ensure all crewmembers are able to select personalized configurations for optimal sleep. Individual sleeping quarters should be designed for long-duration missions. In a confined space, the sleep environment serves as a place to sleep, and a place for storing personal items and as a place for privacy during non-sleep times. This need for privacy during sleep and wake appears to be critically important to the psychological well-being of crewmembers on long-duration missions.
Keywords: personnel selection, assessments, space psychology, astronaut performance, psychological tests
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to identify the critical psychological factors, especially those relevant to functioning in a team-based mission, to consider during the astronaut selection process that may mitigate risk factors and enhance team performance. First, a brief overview of historical astronaut selection processes will provide an understanding of the current role of psychological factors in selection. Second, a review of the risk factors that have an identified impact on team performance will serve as context for the critical psychological factors to consider in selection. Third, this review will examine the psychological factors to consider in the selection process to best mitigate the risk factors previously identified. Fourth, selection methods and measures used to evaluate these psychological factors will be identified. Finally, we will list recommendations for current operations and future research.
Keywords: long-duration spaceflight; bone density; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; early onset osteoporosis; exercise
Abstract: The Bone Discipline Lead for NASA’s Human Research Program was tasked by the Space Medicine Configuration Control Board and the Human System Risk Board to convene a panel of osteoporosis clinicians to review the existing dataset collected on long-duration astronauts to make recommendations for clinical practice guidelines that are specific to the spaceflight-induced risk for Early Onset Osteoporosis (Early Onset Op). The selected Panel consisted of clinical experts in fields of bone densitometry, endocrinology, male osteoporosis, gerontology, bone epidemiology, physical medicine, rehabilitation, vitamin D, and nutrition. The Bone Summit was conducted in Houston, TX on June 7 and 8, 2010, by invitation only, at the Universities Space Research Association facilities. Support scientists, extramural investigators, and NASA personnel that were involved in astronaut data acquisition and analysis were asked to support Panel discussions.
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